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A brief history of malaysias government and economy

They arrived as early as 8,000 BC. Later Stone Age farmers came to Malaya and displaced them. The hunter-gatherers continued to exist but they retreated into remote areas.

The farmers practiced slash and burn agriculture. They cleared an area of rain forest by burning it then grew crops.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF MALAYSIA

After a few years the land would be exhausted and the farmers would clear a new area. However within a few years the old area would become covered in vegetation and would become fertile again. After 1,000 BC metal-using farmers came to Malaya. They made tools from bronze and iron and they settled along the coast and along rivers. They lived partly by fishing, partly by growing crops.

In the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD centralized states arose in Malaya. The greatest was Kedah in the North. The Malayans became highly civilized. Malayan civilization was heavily influenced by India. Malays traded with India from the 3rd century AD.

After that contact with India was common.

Malayan laws and writing show Indian influence. The religions of Buddhism and Hinduism were also introduced into Malaya at that time. It was a kingdom in Sumatra with its capital at Palembang. Srivijaya controlled the coasts of Java, the Malay Peninsula and part of Borneo. However Srivijayan only really controlled the coast. Their influence did not extend far inland. The prosperity of Srivijaya was based on trade with both India and China.

As a result it grew rich and powerful. Srivijaya was able to dominate the region until the 11th century.

Then its power declined and by the 13th century Srivijaya had lost control completely. A man named Parameswara founded it at the end of the 14th century. He became the ruler of Temasek, Singapore Island. However the Thais overthrew him. Parameswara fled with some followers and settled by a river called Bertram.

According to legend when he was hunting a mouse deer turned and kicked one of his dogs. Parameswara took this as an omen and decided to found a settlement there.

The Southeast Asia Financial and Economic Crisis

Since he was standing under a Melaka tree at the time he named it Melaka. Parameswara converted to Islam. Islam first reached the region during the 8th century. It made many converts between the 14th and 16th centuries. During the 15th century the new settlement prospered and grew.

The wealth and power of Melaka was based on trade with Arab, Chinese and Indian ships sailing there. The great wealth of the city-state of Melaka came to the notice of the Portuguese. In 1511 they sent an expedition led by Alfonso de Albuquerque to capture it. Melaka soon fell to the Portuguese artillery.

However the son of the Sultan of Melaka founded Johor. In the early 16th century Johor made several unsuccessful attempts to recapture Melaka. However Johor remained hostile to Portuguese Melaka.

Then in the early 17th century they made an alliance with the Dutch against their mutual enemy the Portuguese. The Dutch made two unsuccessful attempts to capture Melaka in 1606 and 1608. They then turned their attention to Java. Finally in 1641 the Dutch laid siege to Melaka again. After a terrible siege, in which many people died, Melaka finally fell to the Dutch. Another rich and powerful state was Aceh, in Sumatra.

  • At that time they began looking for a base in Malaya;
  • As a reward he was given territory to rule and in 1841 he was granted the title of Raja of Sarawak.

However the Sultanate of Aceh reached its peak in the early 17th century then began to decline. Brunei was another powerful state. Already strong in the 15th century it grew stronger in the 16th after the Portuguese captured Melaka. The power of Brunei was at its peak in the early 16th century but it declined at the end of the century.

In the early 17th century the Dutch drove out all other Europeans from the area. For the rest of the 17th century they were friends with Johor and the two powers dominated the region. In 1673 the forces of the kingdom of Jambi sacked the capital of Johor, Batu Sawar.

However Johor eventually managed to inflict defeat on Jambi.

  • Finally in 1641 the Dutch laid siege to Melaka again;
  • By 1860 the population of Singapore was over 80,000.

At the end of the 17th century Johor was still the most powerful state in Malaya. However in 1699 Sultan Mahmud was assassinated. That event marked the beginning of the end of Johor power.

A people called the Bugis originally came from Sulawesi. At the end of the 17th century they began to settle, peacefully, in the territory of Johor. They were allowed to settle but they soon became very powerful. In 1717 a man named Raja Kecil claimed he was the son of the assassinated Sultan Mahmud.

He and his followers seized the capital of Johor. The reigning sultan, a man named Abdul Jalil, was overthrown. However he fled to the east coast of the Malay Peninsula with his followers and set up a rival court there.

From then on both men claimed to be the ruler of Johor. Abdul Jalil was murdered on the orders of his rival, Raja Kecil. The Bugis then turned on Raja Kecil. They captured the capital and made Abdul Jalil's son Sulaiman ruler. However Sulaiman was only a puppet ruler. From then on the Bugis held the real power.

At that time they began looking for a base in Malaya.

  1. In the early 16th century Johor made several unsuccessful attempts to recapture Melaka. The two sides came to blows.
  2. In the early 20th century a new industry grew up in Malaya-rubber. Indians were treated less harshly.
  3. Whether the Plaza Accord was the cause of the devaluation of the dollar is in doubt, but nevertheless the Malaysian Government felt victimized by a conspiracy of the big powers and decided to strike back by using the information its central bank obtained from other central banks to speculate in the currency markets. They arrived as early as 8,000 BC.
  4. Meanwhile Malayan nationalism was growing. He and his followers seized the capital of Johor.
  5. Islam first reached the region during the 8th century. By 1860 the population of Singapore was over 80,000.

In 1800 they took Province Wellesley. By the treaty of London, 1824, the British and Dutch divided the region between them. The Dutch surrendered Melaka to the British. The Dutch were given control of Sumatra and all the area below the Malay Peninsula. By 1860 the population of Singapore was over 80,000. However although the British East India Company controlled islands and parts of the coast they did not control the interior of the Malay Peninsula.

However in 1867 they were made a crown colony. British control of Sarawak began in 1841. In 1840 a man named James Brooke helped the Sultan of Brunei to crush a rebellion. As a reward he was given territory to rule and in 1841 he was granted the title of Raja of Sarawak. Brooke's territory was enlarged in 1853.

Meanwhile Siam modern day Thailand invaded Kedah in 1821. They deposed the Sultan. There were rebellions against Siamese rule in 1830-31 and in 1838-39. The Sultan was restored in 1841 but Kedah remained a vassal state of Siam.

Background

As a result exports of tin from Malaya to Britain boomed. Steamships and the opening of the Suez canal in 1869 further boosted exports of tin. Chinese workers flocked to work in the tin mines of Malaya and on plantations. However in 1871 the Sultan of Perak died and there was a quarrel over who should succeed him. Furthermore Chinese secret societies fought over who would control the tin mines. The turmoil disrupted supplies of tin to Britain.

So one man who claimed he was the rightful heir to the Sultan, Raja Abdullah, made an agreement with the British. It was known as the Pangkor Agreement. The British recognized Abdulla as Sultan of Perak.