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A report on an experiment based on piagets theory of intellectual development

The answers to this age-old question have been examined and analyzed by many scientists. There are plenty of prominent theories explaining cognitive development and helping us to understand the foundation of knowledge. One of the most prominent answers to the question has come from a Swiss psychologist, Jean Piget.

Who was Jean Piaget? Jean Piaget was a psychologist, who became famous for creating his scientific theory about the intellectual development of children. He was born in Switzerland in 1896, showing an interest towards nature and science from an early age.

When he was just 10 years old, he published a scientific paper about albino sparrow in a naturalist magazine. Piaget gained his Ph. Piaget spent some time studying with Carl Jung and during this time, he met with Theodore Simon, who had been a collaborating with Alfred Binet. Simon offered Piaget a role, which led to Piaget developing an interest in the cognitive development of children. The role saw him supervise the standardization of an intelligence test developed by Binet and Simon.

While working, Piaget observed children and concluded that children are not less intelligent than adults, but the difference is how they think and view things. When Piaget had his daughter Jacqueline, he paid specific interest in her early development.

Piaget was one of the first psychologists to construct a systematic understanding of cognitive development — how do we learn? A report on an experiment based on piagets theory of intellectual development do we gain intelligence? When he was analyzing the results of the intelligence test, he noticed that young children provide qualitatively different answers to older children.

This suggested to him younger children are not dumber, since this would be a quantitative position — an older child is smarter with more experience. Instead, the children simply answered differently because they thought of things differently. Similarly, when Piaget observed his nephew Gerard playing with a ball, he noticed something that to adults seems irrational. When the ball rolled out of sight under a sofa, Gerard began looking at it from the spot he last saw the ball, not under the sofa.

These observations reinforced his idea that young children and older children have qualitative and quantitative differences in thinking. He saw development as a progressive reorganisation of these mental processes.

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

This came about due to biological maturation, as well as environmental experience. We are essentially constructing a world around us in which we try to align things that we already know and what we suddenly discover. Through the process, a child develops knowledge and intelligence, which helps him or her to reason and think independently. Instead of there being a gradual increase in the complexity of behavior and ideas, development is marked by qualitative differences.

We first construct our image of the world — coming to know something. We then go through stages of implementing the knowledge with what the world around us is telling — discovering the discrepancies. Schemas A schema is a description of both the mental and physical actions required in understanding and knowing. Without them, you would find the world incomprehensible.

But schemas provide you a way to organize your knowledge, creating units of objects, actions and abstract concepts. You have many schemas about a variety of things. An example could be your schema about potatoes — what do you know about them? Your knowledge might be based on your experiences; they taste good when baked, they have an outer layer and they are grown underground.

Therefore, a schema will change over time. SCHEMATA A schema is a cognitive structure that represents knowledge about everything that we know about the world, including oneself, others, events, etc. A schema is important because it allows us to quickly make sense of a person, situation, event, or a place on the basis of limited information. According to his theory, a child would modify, add or change the existing schemas as new information or experiences occur.

So, if the child would one day eat a disgusting potato, he or she would add to the existing schema. He saw the schemas as mental organizations controlling behavior or adaptation to the environment. Furthermore, as you gain maturity, the schemas become more complex. For instance, your schema about potatoes becomes much wider; perhaps you gain more information about the different varieties, you understand how different potatoes taste different and so on.

Piaget suggested that the schemas eventually become organized in a hierarchical order, from a general schema to a specific schema. An infant has a schema, such as the sucking reflex. On the other hand, as you grow older these schemas become less genetic and more about our surroundings. You do it all in reverse order and this is an example of a complex schema. Equilibrium, assimilation and accommodation The second fundamental concept is the compilation of three concepts: Out of these three, assimilation and accommodation are the two core processes people use in order to adapt to the environment — the attempt to make sense of new information and to use it for future.

On the other hand, equilibrium is the attempt to strike a balance between the schemas in your head and then what the environment is telling. Assimilation When you take in new information regarding your existing schema, you are a report on an experiment based on piagets theory of intellectual development.

When you encounter French fries and identify it as potato, you are assimilating the French fries into your pre-existing schema. You are essentially using a pre-existing schema to deal with a new experience, situation, object or idea.

You take the French fries and assimilate them inside a schema, instead of creating a new one. The process of assimilation is a subjective occurrence, since we are always modifying experiences and information in a way that fits our pre-existing beliefs.

S Siegler et al. A young child might have an image of a clown and according to his or her schema, clowns have shaved heads and lots of frizzy hair on the sides. Accommodation Assimilation is the first attempt of understanding new information and experiences, with accommodation adding another solution if the above is insufficient. In accommodation, you try to modify your existing schemas and ideas, with the process giving you a new experience or knowledge and often resulting in the birth of new schemas.

For example, you might see French fries, but after biting into them realise they are made from sweet potato. You therefore, accommodate your existing schema not everything that looks like French fries is potato and add or create a new schema you can use sweet potato to make French fries.

  1. For example, you might see French fries, but after biting into them realise they are made from sweet potato. An infant has a schema, such as the sucking reflex.
  2. Instead of having to physically try things such as pouring the water back him- or herself , the child begins to think things through internally. This stage is characterized by a lack of ability to classify and regards similar objects as though they are identical in a type of muddled categorization; i.
  3. Without them, you would find the world incomprehensible. SCHEMATA A schema is a cognitive structure that represents knowledge about everything that we know about the world, including oneself, others, events, etc.
  4. An example of a schema's evolution is the innate ability of an infant to suck for sustenance at the breast eventually expanding the sucking schema to include similar behaviour with tiny fingers and hands, a bottle etc.
  5. When you encounter such a situation, you need to understand it rather than fight against it. People ascribe different meanings to words and the schemas might be different to everyone.

You are changing the existing structures or the knowledge you have to fit the environment around you. Generally, accommodation is a result of a failure of the schema. Therefore, to overcome this obstacle, you change, add and modify your strategy or schema.

Now the child would need to change the schema of clown to include other things making people laugh, red nose, funny costume in order for it to work. Piaget believed it to be the mechanism children use in order to move from one stage of thought to the other. The process involves the child applying previous knowledge assimilation and changing the behaviour if the knowledge is not aligned with the new knowledge accommodation. The process is beautifully illustrated in the below image: Instead of knowledge being something we gain at a steady rate, we tend to develop in leaps and bounds.

Therefore, equilibrium occurs in different ways and is the key process children, specifically, use to move beyond simply assimilating things. You could think of equilibrium as a sort of balance restoring process.

As I mentioned above, Piaget thought cognitive development as a process or construction of a mental model of the world. Development is biological and as the child matures, changes occur in cognitive understanding. According to Piaget, there are four universal stages of cognitive development: Sensorimotor stage — The core idea for the sensorimotor stage is object permanence.

This requires the formation of a schema of the object and the knowledge the object continues to exist even after it is out of view.

The ball will still be a ball even when it rolls under the sofa. Pre-operational stage — Thinking begins moving towards symbolical stages during the pre-operational period.

A report on an experiment based on piagets theory of intellectual development learn that words and objects can be something other than themselves. Children start to develop imagination and things can start having more meaning. You might remember having a ball as a best friend or you made a toy plane out of cardboard.

Nonetheless, the pre-operational stage is still controlled by egocentric thoughts. For example, if you split water into two jugs, one wider and the other taller, the child might think the taller one has more water inside it.

Instead of having to physically try things such as pouring the water back him- or herselfthe child begins to think things through internally. While the developmental stage sees more logic in thinking, the thought patterns continue to be rigid. Another important aspect is the diminishing of egocentric thinking. Formal operational stage — The final stage for Piaget was about the ability to increase logical thinking, using deductive reasoning and understanding abstract ideas.

Piaget never assigned any specific years to each stage, although there have later been an attempt to indicate an average age at which the child might reach each stage. But the ideas and concept at play can also tell a lot about training and development in more general.

The theory was used as a basis for primary education practices in the UK, for example. Nonetheless, Piaget did have a few essential things to say about learning and development, which you should take note of. He believed children to require a certain level of maturity before they can be taught a specific concept.

Piaget also thought assimilation and accommodation to be active learning experiences. To him, problem solving is not a skill to be taught, but to be discovered. Therefore, children and other learners must be active participants of the training or education, not just passive participants.

Therefore, many classrooms use active discovery learning as the basis, in which the teacher simply facilitates learning instead of directing.

The child essentially gets to make his or her own experiments while learning. Use props and other aids to support learning. Since development is an active experience, you want to engage the person learning.

You should provide the opportunity to test things, feel things, and experiment with things in order to boost to engagement and ensure the child gets to test assimilation and possibly accommodating to the new information.