Essays academic service


A research on languages their characteristics and statuses

Status planning[ edit ] Status planning is the allocation or reallocation of a language or variety to functional domains within a society, thus affecting the status, or standing, of a language. Language status[ edit ] Language status is a concept distinct from, though intertwined with, language prestige and language function. Both Kloss and Stewart stipulated four qualities of a language that determine its status.

Their respective frameworks differ slightly, but they emphasize four common attributes: Language origin — whether a given language is indigenous or imported to the speech community Degree of standardization — the extent of development of a formal set of norms that define 'correct' usage Juridical status Sole official language e.

French in France and Turkish in Turkey Joint official language e. Igbo in Nigeria ; Marathi in MaharashtraIndia Promoted language — lacks official status on a national or regional level but is promoted and sometimes used by public authorities for specific functions e.

Language planning

Native American languages in the United States in present day Proscribed language — discouraged by official sanction or restriction e.

Galician, Basque and Catalan during Francisco Franco 's regime in Spain; Macedonian in Greece ; [7] indigenous American languages during the boarding school era [8] Vitality — the ratio, or percent, of users of a language to another variable, like the total population.

However, they draw the line between classes at different percentages. Stewart defines the six classes are determined by the following percentages of speakers: Together, origin, degree of standardization, juridical status, and vitality express a language's status.

William Stewart outlines ten functional domains in language planning: Provincial — A provincial language functions as an official language for a geographic area smaller than a nation, typically a province or region e. French in Quebec [10] Wider communication — A language of wider communication is a language that may be official or provincial, but more importantly, functions as a medium of communication across language boundaries within a nation e.

Hindi in India; Swahili language in East Africa [10] International — An international language functions as a medium of communication across national boundaries e.

Language learning, socioeconomic status, and child-directed speech.

English, formerly French as a diplomatic and international language [10] Capital — A capital language functions as a prominent language in and around a national capital e. Dutch and French in Brussels [10] Group — A group language functions as a conventional language among the members of a single cultural or ethnic group e.

Hebrew amongst the Jews [10] Educational — An educational language functions as a medium of instruction in primary and secondary schools on a regional or national basis Urdu in West Pakistan and Bengali in East Pakistan [10] School subject — A school subject language is a language that is taught as a subject in secondary school or higher education e.

Latin and Ancient Greek in English-language schools [10] Literary — A literary language functions as a language for literary or scholarly purposes Ancient Greek [10] Religious — A religious language functions as a language for the ritual purposes of a particular religion e. First, he creates three sub-types of official functions: A working language is a language that a government uses as a medium for daily activities, and a symbolic language is a language that is a symbol of the state.

Cooper also adds two functional domains to Stewart's list: Corpus planning[ edit ] Corpus planning refers to the prescriptive intervention in the forms of a language, whereby a research on languages their characteristics and statuses decisions are made to engineer changes in the structure of the language. Graphization[ edit ] Graphization refers to development, selection and modification of scripts and orthographic conventions for a language.

Ferguson made two key observations about the results of adopting a writing system. First, the use of writing adds another variety of the language to the community's repertory. Although written language is often viewed as secondary to spoken language, the vocabularygrammatical structures and phonological structures of a language often adopt characteristics in the written form that are distinct from the spoken variety.

Second, the use of writing often leads to a folk belief that the written language is the 'real' language, and speech is a corruption of it. Written language is viewed as more conservative, while the spoken variety is more susceptible to language change. Isolated relic areas of the spoken language may be less innovative than the written form, or the written language may have been based on a divergent variety of the spoken language.

The Ainu of Japan chose to adopt the Japanese language 's katakana syllabary as the writing system for the Ainu language. Katakana is designed for a language with a basic CV syllable structurebut Ainu contains many CVC syllables that cannot easily be adapted to this syllabary. As a result, Ainu uses a modified katakana system, in which syllable-final codas are consonants by a subscript version of a a research on languages their characteristics and statuses symbol that begins with the desired consonant.

Though the script was modeled after the Greek alphabetthe original script distinguished Armenian from the Greek and Syriac alphabets of the neighboring peoples. It uses some Latin characters but also introduces new ones.

Standardization[ edit ] The process of Standardization often involves one variety of a language taking precedence over other social and regional dialects of a language. If one variety of a language is chosen, that variety comes to be understood as supra-dialectal and the 'best' form of the language.

This often reinforces the dominance of the powerful social group and makes the standard norm necessary for socioeconomic mobility. The standardization process began when William Caxton introduced the printing press in England in 1476.

This was accompanied by the adoption of the south-east Midlands variety of English, spoken in Londonas the print language. Because a research on languages their characteristics and statuses the dialect's use for administrative, government, business, and literary purposes, this variety became entrenched as the prestigious variety of English. After the creation of grammars and dictionaries in the 18th century, the rise of print capitalismindustrializationurbanizationand mass education led to the dissemination of this dialect as the standard norm for the English language.

Modernization[ edit ] Modernization is a form of language planning that occurs when a language needs to expand its resources to meet functions. Modernization often occurs when a language undergoes a shift in status, such as when a country gains independence from a colonial power or when there is a change in the language education policy.

Language planners generally focus on creating new lists and glossaries to describe new technical terms, but it is also necessary to ensure that the new terms are consistently used by the appropriate sectors within society.

While some languages, such as Japanese and Hungarianhave experienced rapid lexical expansion to meet the demands of modernization, other languages, such as Hindi and Arabichave failed to do so. Issues of linguistic purism often play a significant role in lexical expansion, but technical vocabulary can be effective within a language, regardless of whether it comes from the language's own process of word formation or from extensive borrowing from another language.

Acquisition planning[ edit ] Acquisition planning is a type of language planning in which a national, state or local government system aims to influence aspects of language, such as language status, distribution and literacy through education. Acquisition planning can also be used by non-governmental organizations, but it is more commonly associated with government planning. For example, if a government decides to raise the status level of a certain language or change its level of prestige, it can establish a law that requires teachers to teach only in this language or that textbooks are written using only this language's script.

This, in turn, would support the elevation of the language's status or could increase its prestige. In this way, acquisition planning is often used to promote language revitalizationwhich can change a language's status or reverse a language shiftor to promote linguistic purism. The education sector[ edit ] The education ministry or education sector of government is typically in charge of making national language acquisition decisions based on state and local evaluation reports.

  • To establish a local and state assessment system to monitor progress;
  • Hindi in India; Swahili language in East Africa [10] International — An international language functions as a medium of communication across national boundaries e;
  • Irish-speaking teachers were recruited, and preparatory colleges were established to train new ones;
  • Galician, Basque and Catalan during Francisco Franco 's regime in Spain; Macedonian in Greece ; [7] indigenous American languages during the boarding school era [8] Vitality — the ratio, or percent, of users of a language to another variable, like the total population.

The responsibilities of education sectors vary by country; Robert B. Kaplan and Richard B. Baldauf describe the sectors' six principal goals: To determine the amount and quality of teacher training. To involve local communities. To determine what materials will be used and how they will be incorporated into syllabi. To establish a local and state assessment system to monitor progress.

To determine financial costs.

Problems[ edit ] Although acquisition planning can be useful to governments, there are several problems that must be considered. Some proposed acquisition changes could also be too drastic or instituted too suddenly without proper planning and organization.

Acquisition planning can also be financially draining, so adequate planning and awareness of financial resources is essential. It is important therefore that government goals, such as those described above, be organized and planned carefully.

Some states prefer instruction only in the official language, but some aim to foster linguistic and thus social diversity by encouraging teaching in several native languages. One reason some states prefer a single language of instruction is that it supports national unity and homogeneity.

Although these organizations do not hold official power, they influence government planning decisions, such as with educational materials, affecting acquisition. The Gaelic League was created to promote the acquisition of Irish in schools, thus "de-Anglicizing" Ireland. Irish-speaking teachers were recruited, and preparatory colleges were established to train new ones. The program implementation was mostly left to the individual schools, which did not consistently carry it out.

Additionally, educating a generation is a long process, for which the League was not prepared. There was a research on languages their characteristics and statuses consensus as to how the Irish language should be reinstituted; the League and schools did not develop a system assessment plan to monitor progress.

As a result, the movement lost strength, and the number of native Irish speakers has been in steady decline. Quechua in Peru[ edit ] Status planning[ edit ] Peru 's history of language planning begins in the 16th century with Spanish colonization.

When the Spanish first arrived in Peru, Quechua served as a language of wider communication, a lingua franca, between Spaniards and Peruvian natives. As the years passed, Spaniards asserted the superiority of the Spanish language; as a result, Spanish gained prestige, taking over as a language of wider communication and the dominant language of Peru.

Quechua has officially remained a provincial language since 1979. Today, Quechua also serves a limited international function throughout South America in ArgentinaBoliviaBrazilChileColombiaand Ecuador ; communities of Quechua speakers outside Peru enable communication in Quechua across borders.

  1. Rather, standardization was required in order to create a uniform writing system to provide education to Quechua speakers in their native language. First, the use of writing adds another variety of the language to the community's repertory.
  2. Graphization[ edit ] Graphization refers to development, selection and modification of scripts and orthographic conventions for a language. Language planners have attempted to create new Quechua words primarily through Quechua morphemes, which are combined in new ways to give new meanings.
  3. Today, Quechua also serves a limited international function throughout South America in Argentina , Bolivia , Brazil , Chile , Colombia , and Ecuador ; communities of Quechua speakers outside Peru enable communication in Quechua across borders.

Still, because of Quechua's low status, Spanish is almost always used as the lingua franca instead. Recently, Quechua has also gained ground in the academic world, both as a school subject and a topic of literary interest. Corpus planning[ edit ] The three main types of corpus planning are all evident in the development of Quechua languages in Peru since the colonial era.

Graphization has been in process since the arrival of the Spanish in the region, when the Spanish imperialists attempted to describe the exotic sounds of the language to Europeans.

Although most agreed to use the Latin alphabetlinguists disagreed about how to represent the phonological system of Quechua, particularly in regards to the vowel system. They argued that this makes the language easier to learn for people who are already familiar with written Spanish. However, other Peruvian linguists argued that a three-vowel system was more faithful to the phonology of Quechua.

After several years of debate and disagreement, in 1985 Peruvian linguists proposed the Pan-Quechua alphabet as an accurate representation of the language, and this was adopted in intercultural bilingual education programs and textbooks. However, the Peruvian Academy and the SIL both refused to adopt it and continued to propose new alphabets, leaving the issue unsettled.

Another of the primary issues disagreements was about how to reflect the phonological differences apparent in different dialects of Quechua. Unlike other cases of standardization, in Quechua this has been applied only to the written language, not to the spoken language, and no attempt was made to change the spoken language of native speakers, which varied by regions. Rather, standardization was required in order to create a uniform writing system to provide education to Quechua speakers in their native language.

Language planners in Peru have proposed several varieties to serve as the supradialectal spoken norm. Some saw Qusqu-Qullaw as the natural choice for a standard norm, as it is recognized to be the variety closest to that spoken by the Incas. Others argued that Ayacucho Quechua is a better option, as the language is more conservative and similar to the proto-language, while Qusqu-Qullaw has been influenced by contact with the Aymara language.

This norm has been accepted by many institutions in Peru. Language planners have attempted to create new Quechua words primarily through Quechua morphemes, which are combined in new ways to give new meanings. In general, loanwords from other languages are considered only when there are no possibilities to develop the word through existing Quechua structures. If loanwords are a research on languages their characteristics and statuses into the language, linguists attempt to phonologically adapt the word to match typical Quechua pronunciation norms.