Essays academic service

A study of capital punishment in todays system

The research on capital punishment: Recent scholarship and unresolved questions By Alexandra Raphel and John Wihbey Over the past year the death penalty has again come into focus as a major public policy and political issue, catalyzed by several high-profile events.

The botched execution of convicted murderer and rapist Clayton Lockett in Oklahoma in 2014 was seen as a potential turning point in the debate, bringing increased attention to the mechanisms by which persons are executed.

  • State-by-state reports cards are available;
  • False convictions One key reason for the contentious debate is the concern that states are executing innocent people;
  • One of them, Ernest Willis, was freed in 2004 after his attorneys commissioned a review by an expert in fire science, who concluded that neither blaze was caused by the suspects;
  • The racial disparity is arresting;
  • When more is spent to meet those commitments, less is available for everything else;
  • In New York City alone, there are roughly 1,900 fewer murders per year now compared with the goriest days of the early 1990s.

That was followed by a number of other closely scrutinized cases, and the year ended with few executions relative to years past. On December 31, 2014, Maryland Gov. In 2013, Maryland became the 18th state to abolish the death penalty after Connecticut in 2012 and New Mexico in 2009. Meanwhile, polling data suggests some softening of public attitudes, though the majority Americans continue to support capital punishment.

  • For example, see La Grand v;
  • On May 27, the conservative Nebraska state legislature abolished the death penalty in that state despite a veto attempt by Governor Pete Ricketts;
  • At that rate, the Sunshine State would need about 175 years to clear out its death row;
  • When more is spent to meet those commitments, less is available for everything else.

A Washington Post-ABC News poll in mid-2014 found that more Americans support life sentences, rather than the death penalty, for convicted murderers. Scholarly research sheds light on a number of important aspects of this issue: False convictions One key reason for the contentious debate is the concern that states are executing innocent people. How many people are unjustly facing the death penalty?

By definition, it is difficult to obtain a reliable answer to this question. Presumably if judges, juries, and law enforcement were always able to conclusively determine who was innocent, those defendants would simply not be convicted in the first place.

When capital punishment is the sentence, however, this issue takes on new importance. Some believe that when it comes to death-penalty cases, this is not a huge cause for concern. In his concurrent opinion in the 2006 Supreme Court case Kansas v.

  • Many of the studies have reached conflicting conclusions, however;
  • Compared with the cost of a complicated lawsuit, the cost of incarceration is minimal;
  • The Justices all know that the modern death penalty is a failure;
  • From Kansas to Maryland , Tennessee to Pennsylvania , studies have all reached similar conclusions;
  • The late Watt Espy, an eccentric Alabaman whose passion for this topic produced the most complete record ever made of executions in the U;
  • The risks involved in trying to speed executions are apparent in the growing list of innocent and likely innocent death-row prisoners set free— more than 150 since 1975.

MarshJustice Antonin Scalia suggested that the execution error rate was minimal, around 0. However, a 2014 study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences suggests that the figure could be higher.

Kennedy University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine examine data from the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the Department of Justice relating to exonerations from 1973 to 2004 in an attempt to estimate the rate of false convictions among death row defendants. If all death row prisoners were to remain under this sentence indefinitely, how many of them would have eventually been found innocent exonerated? After examining 7,482 cases, they estimate that 1 in 25 death row inmates are wrongly convicted.

The Innocence Projecta litigation and public policy organization founded in 1992, has been deeply involved in many such cases. Death penalty deterrence effects: What do we know?

The research on capital punishment: Recent scholarship and unresolved questions

A chief way proponents of capital punishment defend the practice is the idea that the death penalty deters other people from committing future crimes. For example, research conducted by John J. If people act as rational maximizers of their profits or well-being, perhaps there is reason to believe that the most severe of punishments would serve as a deterrent.

In contrast, one could also imagine a scenario in which capital punishment leads to an increased homicide rate because of a broader perception that the state devalues human life. It could also be possible that the death penalty has no effect at all because information about executions is not diffused in a way that influences future behavior. In 1978 — two years after the Supreme Court issued its decision reversing a previous ban on the death penalty Gregg v.

Georgia — the National Research Council NRC published a comprehensive review of the current research on capital punishment to determine whether one of these hypotheses was more empirically supported than the others.

Many of the studies have reached conflicting conclusions, however.

Capital Punishment: The end of the death penalty

To conduct an updated review, the NRC formed the Committee on Deterrence and the Death Penalty, comprised of academics from economics departments and public policy schools from institutions around the country, including the Carnegie Mellon University, University of Chicago and Duke University. In 2012, the Committee published an updated report that concluded that not much had changed in recent decades: Why has the research not been able to provide any definitive answers about the impact of the death penalty?

One general challenge is that when it comes to capital punishment, a counter-factual policy is simply not observable.

You cannot simultaneously execute and not execute defendants, making it difficult to isolate the impact of the death penalty. The Committee also highlights a number of key flaws in the research designs: There are both capital and non-capital punishment options for people charged with serious crimes. Manski Northwestern University and John V. Pepper University of Virginia focus on the third challenge.

Here, as always when analyzing treatment response, data must be combined with assumptions to enable inference on counterfactual outcomes. In 1975, the death penalty became illegal across the United States, in 1977 the ban had been overturned and 32 states had legal death penalty statutes.

This allows the researchers to compare different homicide rates for each state and each year. By conducting this analysis using a range of assumptions, they find that the deterrence effect of the death penalty strongly depends on those particular assumptions. Thus, society at large can draw strong conclusions only if there is a consensus favoring particular assumptions.

Deterrence, Displacement, or Both? But they fail to integrate this distinction into a coherently delineated behavioral model that incorporates sanctions regimes, salience, and deterrence.

And, as explained above, their claims of evidence of deterrence in the systematic regime are flawed. At the request of a state commission, the authors first surveyed California district attorneys; they also examined data from the other 36 states that have the death penalty.