# A study of the life of sir isaac newton

Version for printing Isaac Newton's life can be divided into three quite distinct periods. The first is his boyhood days from 1643 up to his appointment to a chair in 1669. The second period from 1669 to 1687 was the highly productive period in which he was Lucasian professor at Cambridge.

The third period nearly as long as the other two combined saw Newton as a highly paid government official in London with little further interest in mathematical research. Isaac Newton was born in the manor house of Woolsthorpe, near Grantham in Lincolnshire.

Although by the calendar in use at the time of his birth he was born on Christmas Day 1642, we give the date of 4 January 1643 in this biography which is the "corrected" Gregorian calendar date bringing it into line with our present calendar. The Gregorian calendar was not adopted in England until 1752.

## Sir Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton came from a family of farmers but never knew his father, also named Isaac Newton, who died in October 1642, three months before his son was born. Although Isaac's father owned property and animals which made him quite a wealthy man, he was completely uneducated and could not sign his own name. Isaac's mother Hannah Ayscough remarried Barnabas Smith the minister of the church at North Witham, a nearby village, when Isaac was two years old.

The young child was then left in the care of his grandmother Margery Ayscough at Woolsthorpe. Basically treated as an orphan, Isaac did not have a happy childhood. His grandfather James Ayscough was never mentioned by Isaac in later life and the fact that James left nothing to Isaac in his will, made when the boy was ten years old, suggests that there was no love lost between the two.

There is no doubt that Isaac felt very bitter towards his mother and his step-father Barnabas Smith. When examining his sins at age nineteen, Isaac listed: Upon the death of his stepfather in 1653, Newton lived in an extended family consisting of his mother, his grandmother, one half-brother, and two half-sisters.

Although this was only five miles from his home, Isaac lodged with the Clark family at Grantham. However he seems to have shown little promise in academic work. His school reports described him as 'idle' and 'inattentive'.

His mother, by now a lady of reasonable wealth and property, thought that her eldest son was the right person to manage her affairs and her estate. Isaac was taken away from school but soon showed that he had no talent, or interest, in managing an estate. This time he lodged with Stokes, who was the headmaster of the school, and it would appear that, despite suggestions that he had previously shown no academic promise, Isaac must have convinced some of those around him that he had academic promise.

Another piece of evidence comes from Isaac's list of sins referred to above. He lists one of his sins as: We know nothing about what Isaac learnt in preparation for university, but Stokes was an able man and almost certainly gave Isaac private coaching and a good grounding.

There is no evidence that he learnt any mathematics, but we cannot rule out Stokes introducing him to Euclid 's Elements which he was well capable of teaching although there is evidence mentioned below that Newton did not read Euclid before 1663. Anecdotes abound about a mechanical ability which Isaac displayed at the school and stories are told of his skill in making models of machines, in particular of clocks and windmills. However, when biographers seek information about famous people there is always a tendency for people to report what they think is expected of them, and these anecdotes may simply be made up later by those who felt that the most famous scientist in the world ought to have had these skills at school.

A sizar at Cambridge was a student who received an allowance toward college expenses in exchange for acting as a servant to other students. There is certainly some ambiguity in his position as a sizar, for he seems to have associated with "better class" students rather than other sizars. Westfall see [ 23 ] or [ 24 ] has suggested that Newton may have had Humphrey Babington, a distant relative who was a Fellow of Trinity, as his patron.

This reasonable explanation would fit well with what is known and mean that his mother did not subject him unnecessarily to hardship as some of his biographers claim. Newton's aim at Cambridge was a law degree.

Instruction at Cambridge was dominated by the philosophy of A study of the life of sir isaac newton but some freedom of study was allowed in the third year of the course. Newton studied the philosophy of DescartesGassendiHobbesand in particular Boyle. The mechanics of the Copernican astronomy of Galileo attracted him and he also studied Kepler 's A study of the life of sir isaac newton.

It is a fascinating account of how Newton's ideas were already forming around 1664. He headed the text with a Latin statement meaning " Plato is my friend, Aristotle is my friend, but my best friend is truth" showing himself a free thinker from an early stage. How Newton was introduced to the most advanced mathematical texts of his day is slightly less clear. According to de MoivreNewton's interest in mathematics began in the autumn of 1663 when he bought an astrology book at a fair in Cambridge and found that he could not understand the mathematics in it.

Attempting to read a trigonometry book, he found that he lacked knowledge of geometry and so decided to read Barrow 's edition of Euclid 's Elements. The first few results were so easy that he almost gave up but he: Returning to the beginning, Newton read the whole book with a new respect. Newton also studied Wallis 's Algebra and it appears that his first original mathematical work came from his study of this text. He read Wallis 's method for finding a square of equal area to a parabola and a hyperbola which used indivisibles.

Newton made notes on Wallis 's treatment of series but also devised his own proofs of the theorems writing: It would be easy to think that Newton's talent began to emerge on the arrival of Barrow to the Lucasian chair at Cambridge in 1663 when he became a Fellow at Trinity College. Certainly the date matches the beginnings of Newton's deep mathematical studies. However, it would appear that the 1663 date is merely a coincidence and that it was only some years later that Barrow recognised the mathematical genius among his students.

### Sir Isaac Newton's life

Despite some evidence that his progress had not been particularly good, Newton was elected a scholar on 28 April 1664 and received his bachelor's degree in April 1665. It would appear that his scientific genius had still not emerged, but it did so suddenly when the plague closed the University in the summer of 1665 and he had to return to Lincolnshire.

There, in a period of less than two years, while Newton was still under 25 years old, he began revolutionary advances in mathematics, optics, physics, and astronomy. While Newton remained at home he laid the foundations for a study of the life of sir isaac newton and integral calculus, several years before its independent discovery by Leibniz. The 'method of fluxions', as he termed it, was based on his crucial insight that the integration of a function is merely the inverse procedure to differentiating it.

Taking differentiation as the basic operation, Newton produced simple analytical methods that unified many separate techniques previously developed to solve apparently unrelated problems such as finding areas, tangentsthe lengths of curves and the maxima and minima of functions.

When the University of Cambridge reopened after the plague in 1667, Newton put himself forward as a candidate for a fellowship. In October he was elected to a minor fellowship at Trinity College but, after being awarded his Master's Degree, he was elected to a major fellowship in July 1668 which allowed him to dine at the Fellows' Table.

In July 1669 Barrow tried to ensure that Newton's mathematical achievements became known to the world. Collins corresponded with all the leading mathematicians of the day so Barrow 's action should have led to quick recognition. Collins showed Brounckerthe President of the Royal SocietyNewton's results with the author's permission but after this Newton requested that his manuscript be returned.

Collins could not give a detailed account but de Sluze and Gregory learnt something of Newton's work through Collins. Barrow resigned the Lucasian chair in 1669 to devote himself to divinity, recommending that Newton still only 27 years old be appointed in his place. Shortly after this Newton visited London and twice met with Collins but, as he wrote to Gregory: Newton's first work as Lucasian Professor was on optics and this was the topic of his first lecture course begun in January 1670.

He had reached the conclusion during the two plague years that white light is not a simple entity. Every scientist since Aristotle had believed that white light was a basic single entity, but the chromatic aberration in a telescope lens convinced Newton otherwise.

When he passed a thin beam of sunlight through a glass prism Newton noted the spectrum of colours that was formed. He argued that white light is really a mixture of many different types of rays which are refracted at slightly different angles, and that each different type of ray produces a different spectral colour. A study of the life of sir isaac newton was led by this reasoning to the erroneous conclusion that telescopes using refracting lenses would always suffer chromatic aberration.

He therefore proposed and constructed a reflecting telescope. In 1672 Newton was elected a fellow of the Royal Society after donating a reflecting telescope. Also in 1672 Newton published his first scientific paper on light and colour in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. The paper was generally well received but Hooke and Huygens objected to Newton's attempt to prove, by experiment alone, that light consists of the motion of small particles rather than waves.

The reception that his publication received did nothing to improve Newton's attitude to making his results known to the world. He was always pulled in two directions, there was something in his nature which wanted fame and recognition yet another side of him feared criticism and the easiest way to avoid being criticised was to publish nothing.

Certainly one could say that his reaction to criticism was irrational, and certainly his aim to humiliate Hooke in public because of his opinions was abnormal. However, perhaps because of Newton's already high reputation, his corpuscular theory reigned until the wave theory was revived in the 19th century. Newton's relations with Hooke deteriorated further when, in 1675, Hooke claimed that Newton had stolen some of his optical results.

Although the two men made their peace with an exchange of polite letters, Newton turned in on himself and away from the Royal Society which he associated with Hooke as one of its leaders. He delayed the publication of a full account of his optical researches until after the death of Hooke in 1703. Newton's Opticks appeared in 1704. It dealt with the theory of light and colour and with investigations of the colours of thin sheets 'Newton's rings' and diffraction of light.

To explain some of his observations he had to use a wave theory of light in conjunction with his corpuscular theory. His mother died in the following year and he withdrew further into his shell, mixing as little as possible with people for a number of years.

Newton's greatest achievement was his work in physics and celestial mechanics, which culminated in the theory of universal gravitation. By 1666 Newton had early versions of his three laws of motion. He had also discovered the law giving the centrifugal force on a body moving uniformly in a circular path. However he did not have a correct understanding of the mechanics of circular motion. Newton's novel idea of 1666 was to imagine that the Earth's gravity influenced the Moon, counter- balancing its centrifugal force.

From his law of centrifugal force and Kepler 's third law of planetary motion, Newton deduced the inverse-square law. In 1679 Newton corresponded with Hooke who had written to Newton claiming: M Nauenberg writes an account of the next events: This discovery showed the physical significance of Kepler 's second law.

In 1684 Halleytired of Hooke 's boasting [M Nauenberg]: However in 'De Motu. The proof that inverse square forces imply conic section orbits is sketched in Cor. Halley persuaded Newton to write a full treatment of his new physics and its application to astronomy. The Principia is recognised as the greatest scientific book ever written.

Newton analysed the motion of bodies in resisting and non-resisting media under the action of centripetal forces.