Essays academic service


An introduction to organic and biological compounds and its importance

Organic compound

Vitalism For many centuries, Western physicians and chemists believed in vitalism. This was the widespread conception that substances found in organic nature are created from the chemical elements by the action of a "vital force" or "life-force" vis vitalis that only living organisms possess. Vitalism taught that these "organic" compounds were fundamentally different from the "inorganic" compounds that could be obtained from the elements by chemical manipulations.

Vitalism survived for a while even after the rise of modern ideas about the atomic theory and chemical elements.

Carbohydrates

Urea had long been considered an "organic" compound, as it was known to occur only in the urine of living organisms. Carbon atoms are in black, hydrogens gray, oxygens red, and nitrogen blue.

Organic Compounds

Even though vitalism has been discredited, scientific nomenclature retains the distinction between organic and inorganic compounds. The modern meaning of organic compound is any compound that contains a significant amount of carbon—even though many of the organic compounds known today have no connection to any substance found in living organisms.

The term carbogenic has been proposed by E. Corey as a modern alternative to organic, but this neologism remains relatively obscure. The organic compound L -isoleucine molecule presents some features typical of organic compounds: As described in detail below, any definition of organic compound that uses simple, broadly applicable criteria turns out to be unsatisfactory, to varying degrees.

The modern, commonly accepted definition of organic compound essentially amounts to any carbon containing compound, excluding several classes of substances traditionally considered as 'inorganic'.

However, the list of substances so excluded varies from author to author. Still, it is generally agreed upon that there are at least a few carbon containing compounds that should not be considered organic.

For instance, almost all authorities would require the exclusion of alloys that contain carbon, including steel which contains cementiteFe3Cas well as other metal and semimetal carbides including "ionic" carbides, e.

Introduction to Organic Compounds

B4C and SiC, and graphite intercalation compounds, e. Other compounds and materials that are considered 'inorganic' by most authorities include: Halides of carbon without hydrogen e. Nickel carbonyl Ni CO 4 and other metal carbonyls present an interesting case. They are often volatile liquids, like many organic compounds, yet they contain only carbon bonded to a transition metal and to oxygen and are often prepared directly from metal and carbon monoxide.

Nickel carbonyl is frequently considered to be organometallic. Although many organometallic chemists employ a broad definition, in which any compound containing a carbon-metal covalent bond is considered organometallicit is debatable whether organometallic compounds form a subset of organic compounds.

Likewise, it is also unclear whether metalorganic compounds should automatically be considered organic. The relatively narrow definition of organic compounds as those containing C-H bonds excludes compounds that are historically and practically considered organic. Neither urea nor oxalic acid is organic by this definition, yet they were two key compounds in the vitalism debate.

Mellitic acidwhich contains no C-H bonds, is considered a possible organic substance in Martian soil.

  • The Beilstein database contains information on 9;
  • Halides of carbon without hydrogen e;
  • Another distinction, based on the size of organic compounds, distinguishes between small molecules and polymers;
  • A great number of more specialized databases exist for diverse branches of organic chemistry;
  • Many of these are still extracted from natural sources because they would be more expensive to produce artificially;
  • Carbon atoms are in black, hydrogens gray, oxygens red, and nitrogen blue.

A slightly broader definition of organic compound includes all compounds bearing C-H or C-C bonds. This would still exclude urea. Moreover, this definition still leads to somewhat arbitrary divisions in sets of carbon-halogen compounds.

For example, CF4 and CCl4 would be considered by this rule to be "inorganic", whereas CF3H and CHCl3 would be organic, though these compounds share many physical and chemical properties.

One major distinction is between natural and synthetic compounds. Organic compounds can also be classified or subdivided by the presence of heteroatomse.

  • Moreover, this definition still leads to somewhat arbitrary divisions in sets of carbon-halogen compounds;
  • A great number of more specialized databases exist for diverse branches of organic chemistry;
  • Halides of carbon without hydrogen e;
  • Many such biotechnology -engineered compounds did not previously exist in nature;
  • Many are composed of only carbon and hydrogen, collectively called hydrocarbons.

Another distinction, based on the size of organic compounds, distinguishes between small molecules and polymers. Natural compounds[ edit ] Natural compounds refer to those that are produced by plants or animals.

Many of these are still extracted from natural sources because they would be more expensive to produce artificially.

  • Organic compounds can also be classified or subdivided by the presence of heteroatoms , e;
  • Mellitic acid , which contains no C-H bonds, is considered a possible organic substance in Martian soil;
  • Vitalism taught that these "organic" compounds were fundamentally different from the "inorganic" compounds that could be obtained from the elements by chemical manipulations;
  • Biotechnology[ edit ] Many organic compounds—two examples are ethanol and insulin —are manufactured industrially using organisms such as bacteria and yeast;
  • Vitalism For many centuries, Western physicians and chemists believed in vitalism.

Examples include most sugarssome alkaloids and terpenoidscertain nutrients such as vitamin B12and, in general, those natural products with large or stereoisometrically complicated molecules present in reasonable concentrations in living organisms.

Synthetic compounds[ edit ] Compounds that are prepared by reaction of other compounds are known as "synthetic". They may be either compounds that already are found in plants or animals or those that do not occur naturally.

  1. A great number of more specialized databases exist for diverse branches of organic chemistry.
  2. Carbon atoms are in black, hydrogens gray, oxygens red, and nitrogen blue.
  3. A slightly broader definition of organic compound includes all compounds bearing C-H or C-C bonds. However, the list of substances so excluded varies from author to author.
  4. Halides of carbon without hydrogen e.

Most polymers a category that includes all plastics and rubbersare organic synthetic or semi-synthetic compounds. Biotechnology[ edit ] Many organic compounds—two examples are ethanol and insulin —are manufactured industrially using organisms such as bacteria and yeast. Typically, the DNA of an organism is altered to express compounds not ordinarily produced by the organism.

Many such biotechnology -engineered compounds did not previously exist in nature. Databases[ edit ] The CAS database is the most comprehensive repository for data on organic compounds. The search tool SciFinder is offered. The Beilstein database contains information on 9. Structures and a large diversity of physical and chemical properties is available for each substance, with reference to original literature.

A great number of more specialized databases exist for diverse branches of organic chemistry.