Essays academic service


An overview of the world war two and the essence of fear

  1. Both covenants trumpet the extension of rights to all persons and prohibit discrimination.
  2. The extermination by Nazi Germany of over six million Jews, Sinti and Romani gypsies , homosexuals, and persons with disabilities horrified the world.
  3. The extermination by Nazi Germany of over six million Jews, Sinti and Romani gypsies , homosexuals, and persons with disabilities horrified the world.
  4. Both covenants trumpet the extension of rights to all persons and prohibit discrimination. These include conventions to prevent and prohibit specific abuses like torture and genocide and to protect especially vulnerable populations, such as refugees Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, 1951 , women Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women , 1979 , and children Convention on the Rights of the Child , 1989.

Human Rights Fundamentals A Short History of Human Rights The belief that everyone, by virtue of her or his humanity, is entitled to certain human rights is fairly new. Its roots, however, lie in earlier tradition and documents of many cultures; it took the catalyst of World War II to propel human rights onto the global stage and into the global conscience.

Most societies have had traditions similar to the "golden rule" of "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. In addition, the Inca and Aztec codes of conduct and justice and an Iroquois Constitution were Native American sources that existed well before the 18th century. In fact, all societies, whether in oral or written tradition, have had systems of propriety and justice as well as ways of tending to the health and welfare of their members.

World War Two: Key Events

Yet many of these documents, when originally translated into policy, excluded women, people of color, and members of certain social, religious, economic, and political groups. Nevertheless, oppressed people throughout the world have drawn on the principles these documents express to support revolutions that assert the right to self-determination.

  • To advance this goal, the UN established a Commission on Human Rights and charged it with the task of drafting a document spelling out the meaning of the fundamental rights and freedoms proclaimed in the Charter;
  • The Role of Nongovernmental Organizations Globally the champions of human rights have most often been citizens, not government officials.

Contemporary international human rights law and the establishment of the United Nations UN have important historical antecedents. Efforts in the 19th century to prohibit the slave trade and to limit the horrors of war are prime examples. In 1919, countries established the International Labor Organization ILO to oversee treaties protecting workers with respect to their rights, including their health and safety.

Concern over the protection of certain minority groups was raised by the League of Nations at the end of the First World War.

However, this organization for international peace and cooperation, created by the victorious European allies, never achieved its goals.

World War Two

It finally died with the onset of the Second World War 1939. The extermination by Nazi Germany of over six million Jews, Sinti and Romani gypsieshomosexuals, and persons with disabilities horrified the world. Trials were held in Nuremberg and Tokyo after World War II, and officials from the defeated countries were punished for committing war crimes, "crimes against peace," and "crimes against humanity.

People wanted to ensure that never again would anyone be unjustly denied life, freedom, food, shelter, and nationality. The calls came from across the globe for human rights standards to protect citizens from abuses by their governments, standards against which nations could be held accountable for the treatment of those living within their borders.

These voices played a critical role in the San Francisco meeting that drafted the United Nations Charter in 1945.

Cookies on the BBC website

To advance this goal, the UN established a Commission on Human Rights and charged it with the task of drafting a document spelling out the meaning of the fundamental rights and freedoms proclaimed in the Charter. The vote was unanimous, although eight nations chose to abstain.

It claims that all rights are interdependent and indivisible. Its Preamble eloquently asserts that: The influence of the UDHR has been substantial.

Its principles have been incorporated into the constitutions of most of the more than 185 nations now in the UN. Although a declaration is not a legally binding document, the Universal Declaration has achieved the status of customary international law because people regard it "as a common standard of achievement for all people and all nations.

Both covenants trumpet the extension of rights to all persons and prohibit discrimination.

As of 1997, over 130 nations have ratified these covenants. The United States, however, has ratified only the ICCPR, and even that with many reservations, or formal exceptions, to its full compliance.

See From Concept to Convention: How Human Rights Law Evolves. Subsequent Human Rights Documents In addition to the covenants in the International Bill of Human Rights, the United Nations has adopted more than 20 principal treaties further elaborating human rights.

These include conventions to prevent and prohibit specific abuses like torture and genocide and to protect especially vulnerable populations, such as refugees Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, 1951women Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women1979and children Convention on the Rights of the Child1989. As of 1997 the United States has ratified only these conventions: The dramatic changes in Eastern Europe, Africa, and Latin America since 1989 have powerfully demonstrated a surge in demand for respect of human rights.

Popular movements in China, Korea, and other Asian nations reveal a similar commitment to these principles. The Role of Nongovernmental Organizations Globally the champions of human rights have most often been citizens, not government officials. In particular, nongovernmental organizations NGOs have played a cardinal role in focusing the international community on human rights issues.

  • How Human Rights Law Evolves;
  • Its Preamble eloquently asserts that;
  • The influence of the UDHR has been substantial.

Government officials who understand the human rights framework can also effect far reaching change for freedom. Johnson, and Jimmy Carter have taken strong stands for human rights. In other countries leaders like Nelson Mandela and Vaclev Havel have brought about great changes under the banner of human rights. Human rights is an idea whose time has come. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a call to freedom and justice for people throughout the world.

Every day governments that violate the rights of their citizens are challenged and called to task. Every day human beings worldwide mobilize and confront injustice and inhumanity. Like drops of water falling on a rock, they wear down the forces of oppression and move the world closer to achieving the principles expressed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.