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Are the kung and other bushman tribes really primitive people

Kung know him as Erob, who "knows everything". For example, they recall a culture hero named Prishiboro who had a wife who was an elephant. Prishiboro's older brother tricked him into killing his wife and eating her flesh.

Her herd tried to kill Prishiboro in revenge, but his brother defeated them. Kung there is a strong belief in the existence of spirits of the dead llgauwasi who live immortally in the sky. Kung fear the llgauwasi, pray to them for sympathy and mercy as well as call on them in anger. Star Sickness is cured by laying hands on the diseased. Nisa said, "I drank it a number of times and threw up again and again.

Finally, I started to tremble. People rubbed my body as I sat there feeling the effect getting stronger and stronger. It rises until it grabs your insides and takes your thoughts away.

Kung state of mind having health is equivalent to having social harmony meaning that relationships within the tribe are stable and open between other people in the tribe. Any member of the! Kung tribe can become a healer because it "is a status accessible to all," but it is a grand aspiration of many members because of its importance. This force resides in the bellies of men and women who have gone through the training and have become a healer.

Healing can be transmitted through the! Women on the other hand have a special medicine called the gwah which starts in the stomachs and kidneys. In order to obtain the gwah power the women, "chop up the root of a short shrub, boil it into a tea and drink it. Kung fully supports the healers and depends heavily on them. They have trust in the healers and the teachers to guide them psychologically and spiritually through life.

Kung have a saying: The child's cord is not clamped or cut a form of Lotus birth or umbilical nonseveranceand the placenta is delivered and put next to the child, as guardian. Shortly thereafter, the baby-placenta is lightly covered with another large leaf, and the new mother walks a short way to verbally alert the older women of the completed birth, at which time they join the mother and child in a ritual welcoming. If a laboring woman is delayed in returning to the village once she has left to give birth, the older women will come looking for her to assist; however, it is said to be a rare occurrence.

Children are nursed for 3—5 years, ending when the mother is pregnant with another child.

  1. They made their homes in caves, under rocky overhangs or in temporary shelters.
  2. Sexual activities amongst children are seen as natural play for both sexes.
  3. At a later stage, the girl is anointed with Eland fat.
  4. If they do become a stable couple, they can reside with either partner's family, settling with whichever is beneficial at the time. These pitfalls were cleverly covered with branches, which resulted in the animals walking over the pit and falling onto the stake.

This long period of time between children makes traveling long distances on foot — like to a gathering site or new settlement — easier, since fewer children require carrying and population numbers remained controlled.

Kung people do not use contraceptives and generally do not practice abstinence, yet experience low fertility rates. However, these gender roles are not strict and people do all jobs as needed with little or no shame. Women generally take care of children and prepare food. However, this does restrict them to their homes, since these activities are generally done with, or close to, others, so women can socialise and help each other.

Men also engaged in these activities. Sexual activities amongst children are seen as natural play for both sexes.

An analysis of the description of the kung and other bushman tribes

This illustrates "collective mothering", where several women support each other and share the nurturing role. Kung tribe, marriage is the major focus of alliance formation between groups of! When a woman starts to develop, she is considered ready for marriage. Every first marriage is arranged.


The culture of the! Kung is "being directed at marriage itself, rather than at a specific man. The couple stay respectfully apart from each other and do not join the wedding festivities. After the party is over, they spend the night together and the next morning they are ceremonially rubbed with oil by the husband's mother.

Historical background

Newlyweds live in the same village as the wife's family so she has family support during her new life. Often, young wives return to their parents' houses to sleep until they become comfortable with their husbands.

During this time, the husband will hunt for his wife's family a form of bridewealth. If the couple never becomes comfortable, separation is acceptable, prompted by either partner. If they do become a stable couple, they can reside with either partner's family, settling with whichever is beneficial at the time.

Divorce remains possible throughout marriage. Extramarital sex is not condoned, but is equally acceptable for each spouse. Domestic violence is prevented because villages are small and close and houses are open so that neighbors and relatives can intervene as needed. After she has run away, this may result in the dissolution of the arrangement. Anthropologist Marjorie Shostak generalizes that, "Everyone in the village expresses a point of view" on the marriage and if the couple should be divorced or not.

Relations between divorced individuals are usually quite amicable, with former partners living near one another and maintaining a cordial relationship. Kung to have a chieftain or headman in a position of power over the other members. These San are not devoid of leadership, but neither are they dependent on it.

San groups of the Southern Kalahari have had chieftains in the past, however, there is a somewhat complicated process to gain that position. Chieftainship within these San groups is not a position with the greatest power, as they have the same social status as those members of "aged years". This duty entails such roles as dividing up the meat from hunters' kills; these leaders do not receive a larger portion than any other member of the village.

Richard Borshay Lee breaks! Kinship I follows conventional kin terms father, mother, brother, sister and is based on genealogical position.

The first generations above and below one are "avoidance" relations. These relations are treated in a respectful and reserved manner. Kung society fits into one of these categories, there are no neutral people. In situations where there are two people trying to decide what kin terms to use, the older person makes the ultimate decision. Kung as there not many status distinctions.

Leveling mechanism Hunting can take days of tracking, attacking, and following a wounded animal. When a man kills an animal, he does not take it directly into the settlement, but leaves the body and returns as if he was unsuccessful. An older man will inquire about his hunt and remark upon his failure, to which the hunter must avoid credit and accept humility.

The next day, a group will go "see if some small animal was nicked by an arrow. Additionally, the kill may belong not to him, but to the person who gave him arrows man or womanwho then follows rules on how to distribute the meat to everyone in the group.

Kung also believe in the betterment of other tribes, so if the kill is too large to move or there is a surplus of meat, word will be spread to villages that are close by to come collect meat for themselves.

ǃKung people

Kung language, commonly called Ju, is one of the larger click languages and belongs to the Khoisan language group [15]. This water pollution, along with the disappearance of native vegetation, has made disease more prevelant. With urban employment and industrialization, indigenous people are changing their nomadic lifestyle.

European-descended settlers have encouraged wage-paid agricultural labour, especially for men. Due to increased dependence on them and their access to wealth, men are valued more. The changing gender roles, growing inequality between the sexes, and transformation from a wandering hunter-gatherer lifestyle to life in a village have contributed to more domestic violence, as women are more dependent on men and increasingly restricted from outside intervention through changing housing styles and arrangements.

  • As long as a person lives on the land of his group he maintains his membership;
  • Especially the eland, for it is the animal of the greatest spiritual power;
  • The hides are tanned for blankets and the bones are cracked for the marrow.

Kung also face problems since their traditional lands are sought after by cattle ranchers, people of European descent, wildlife reservesand state governments. Kung tribe in Season 4 of Gossip Girl. Carl Sagan draws on the! Kung's way of life in relation to science in his 1995 book The Demon-Haunted World.