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Compare and contrast the biopsychosocial model of health and the biomedical model of health

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Firstly, the nature of the doctor-patient relationship suggests that the patient is a passive recipient of treatment; the patient is reduced to a diagnosis, and offered diagnosis-specific treatment options. The role of personal choice exists, however in a limited capacity.

This perspective assumes the existence of some underlying pathological cause for symptoms and behaviour, and focuses on objective indicators of recovery King et al. The implications of this perspective are that the patient cannot, from his own resources, do anything to ameliorate his illness, and to affect any change in his behaviour, he must adhere to diagnosis-specific treatment set out by the psychiatrist.

It is argued that the ways in which a patient can be disempowered by a psychiatric diagnosis stigma, forced hospitalisation, long-term pharmacotherapy etc. The emphasis however is on the formation of a therapeutic alliance King et al.

The aim of psychosocial rehabilitation is for the patient to have self-determination over their illness and health, and a fulfilled sense of self despite the possible continuation of symptoms Barber, 2012.

  • Psychiatric Services, 63 3 , 277-279;
  • Regardless, the overall benefits of psychosocial rehabilitation should not be ignored simply due to study limitations.

The psychosocial perspective must also be considered in terms of its potential limitations. By placing an emphasis on self-determination and self-management of mental illness and wellbeing, there runs a parallel risk of instilling a sense of responsibility or blame within the patient when less than desirable health outcomes occur.

This is of particular relevance in mental health settings, where poor health outcomes are unfortunately, likely Deacon, 2013. In the biomedical model, the psychiatrist would offer some small consolation to the patient in the form of shouldering the bulk of the responsibility.

Despite a shift towards self-determination by the biomedical model, mental health patients may be forced to accept treatment against their wishes. Therefore, the validity of the biomedical model as a nursing model of care in mental health settings must be questioned. It is understood that the biomedical model is the model on which many nurses base their practice. This was despite recognition amongst the nurses that they used a psychodynamic framework for understanding the aetiology of mental distress, as being a result of interpersonal factors.

  1. In your answer, consider both the benefits and the costs of social support. Evaluate the usefulness of her theory.
  2. The role of personal choice exists, however in a limited capacity. Their contribution to better understanding of the impact of psychosocial factors on health stimulates greater interest of medical theory and practice in more holistic approach to a patient.
  3. He scoffs that the placebo effect is purely psychological, thus "all in the head". Misusing Health Services IV.

The problems with the use of the biomedical model in mental health nursing are varied. This is obviously troublesome for a compare and contrast the biopsychosocial model of health and the biomedical model of health that treats disorders that may not have a definable cause, and typically have poor outcomes Deacon, 2013.

It may well be argued that the biomedical model devalues the role of the nurse, because the humanistic side to care is diminished in favour of a medical diagnosis and cure. In contrast to the biomedical model, the nurse-patient therapeutic alliance is at the core of the psychosocial framework King et al. In this way, the role of the nurse moves away from being task-focused, to actively developing, coordinating and implementing strategies to facilitate the recovery process Caldwell et al.

Despite its persistent dominance of both policy and practice, the biomedical model in regards to the delivery of mental health care is characterised by a lack of clinical innovation and poor outcomes Deacon, 2013. It does, however, have its redeeming qualities.

The primary strength of the biomedical model is its core knowledge base derived from objective scientific experiment, its intuitive appeal, and relevance to many disease-based illnesses Pearson et al.

Evidence-based medicine allows the psychiatrist to access objective evidence about the safety and effectiveness of their interventions Thomas et al. The study showed significant improvement for all participants across a range of parameters used to measure levels of functioning. However, the results did not reveal the specific effects of various components of the rehabilitation programme, making it difficult to isolate each component and to study its effect. Regardless, the overall benefits of psychosocial rehabilitation should not be ignored simply due to study limitations.

Indeed, the biomedical approach has failed to elucidate the very biological basis of mental disorder, and also failed to reduce stigma Deacon, 2013; Schomerus et al.

As previously discussed, psychosocial rehabilitation is underpinned by an ideology that seeks to empower the patient. In their exploration into the validity of evidence-based medicine in psychiatry, Thomas et al. They determined that non-specific factors are far more important in relation to positive outcomes, which would support a psychosocial approach. Recently, the Australian Government Department of Health acknowledged the positive outcomes associated with a recovery-based model, and released the National framework for recovery-oriented mental health services 2013.

Conclusion Recent years have seen significant changes in the perceptions of mental illness, and the provision of mental health services that are available. Despite this progress, modern mental health care is still largely dominated by the biomedical model.

Whilst contemporary interpretations of the psychiatric biomedical model recognise the value of social and psychological factors, they appear to do so in a way that relegates those factors to an order below that of biological factors. This occurs in the absence of any definable biological causes for mental disorders Deacon, 2013.

A contemporary model is required in modern mental health services. Psychosocial rehabilitation is associated with improved objective and subjective patient outcomes, and emphasises the role of the nurse. As observed by Engel 1977the dogmatism of biomedicine inadvertently results in the frustration of patients who believe their genuine health needs are being inadequately met.

True incorporation of a biopsychosocial approach into modern mental health care, would create a framework for consistent positive outcomes, and limitless innovation. Recovery as the new medical model for psychiatry. Psychiatric Services, 63 3277-279.

Psychiatric nursing practice and the recovery model of care. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 48 742-48. Has psychiatric diagnosis labelled rather than enabled patients?

  1. Using Health Services 8A.
  2. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 14, 241-244. Therefore, the validity of the biomedical model as a nursing model of care in mental health settings must be questioned.
  3. The Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 53 1 , 45-48. This occurs in the absence of any definable biological causes for mental disorders Deacon, 2013.
  4. Pain Management Programs B. The medical model is dead — long live the medical model.

The British Medical Journal, 347, doi: Models of care delivery in mental health nursing: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 19, 221-230. Efficacy of psychosocial rehabilitation program: The Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 53 145-48. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 11 461-77. The biomedical model of mental disorder: Clinical Psychology Review 33, 846-861. National framework for recovery-oriented mental health services.

The need for a new medical model: Changes in schizophrenia across time: Research Evidence and Implications for Practice pp.

Comparing Biomedical and Biopsychosocial Models of Health

Centre for Psychiatric Rehabilitation. Handbook of psychosocial rehabilitation. Is psychosocial rehabilitation of schizophrenic patients preventing family burden? Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 12, 415-422. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 782-794. An exploration of mental health nursing models of care in a Queensland psychiatric hospital. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 17, 18-26.

Recovery and the medical model.

Biopsychosocial model--the integrated approach to health and disease.

Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 14, 241-244. Nursing models for practice. European Psychiatry, 20, 529-539. Evolution about public attitudes of mental illness: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 125, 440-452. The medical model is dead — long live the medical model. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 191, 375-377. Nurse Education Today, 27, 155-161. The anomalies of evidence-based medicine in psychiatry: Mental Health Review Journal.

Do biomedical models of illness make for good healthcare systems? The British Medical Journal, 329, 1398-1401. How to cite this page Choose cite format: