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Egoism utilitarianism teleology deontology relativist virtue ethics justice

Egoism utilitarianism teleology deontology relativist virtue ethics justice

As an ethical theory, it can be contrasted with relativism. An absolutist would assert that there is one correct approach to the moral life, across persons and cultures. The term is rarely used other than pejoratively, either in political theory or ethical theory.

  1. Criminal justice utilitarianism egoism, justice, utilitarianism, teleology criminal justice and deontological ethics. Compare with deontological non-consequentialist theories.
  2. Third, a moral principle is a categorical imperative that is universalizable; that is, it must be applicable for everyone who is in the same moral situation. Autonomy — The principle of respect for persons, and of individual self-determination consistent with that principle.
  3. Fidelity — The principle that one should keep one's promises.
  4. Situations are seen as too idiosyncratic, in general, to be subsumable under general rules.

Absolute ethical dictates might be attributed by adherents to the unequivocally revealed will of God, the dictates of Nature to the extent that's not redundantor apprehension through human reason. Act deontology — Theory that deontological i. Situations are seen as too idiosyncratic, in general, to be subsumable under general rules. Contrast with rule deontology. Act utilitarianism — Theory that the principle of utility is -- or ought to be -- applied to particular acts in particular circumstances.

An act utilitarian justifies actions simply by direct appeal to the principle of utility. Contrast with rule utilitarianism. Altruism — Regard for others. As a theory of action, this can be descriptive i. Or it can be a normative position about how people ought to behave viz. Autonomy — The principle of respect for persons, and of individual self-determination consistent with that principle.

  • Ethics Theories- Utilitarianism Vs;
  • Justice — Commonly described as fairness, but more closely aligned to the concept of "desert" pronounced like, but not to be confused with, "dessert" of the ice-cream et al variety;
  • Second, humans should be treated as objects of intrinsic moral value; that is, as ends in themselves and never as a mere means to some other end say, overall happiness or welfare.

As most commonly defined, autonomy points in the direction of personal liberty of action in accordance with a plan chosen only by oneself. In Kant's formulationwhich reconciles with some difficulty with our usual individualistic views, autonomy is fully realized only when one governs oneself in accordance with universally valid moral principles.

Beneficence — Moral principle that one should help others further their important and legitimate interests, either as those persons understand them respecting autonomy or as we conceive them paternalism.

Ethics Theories: Utilitarianism Vs. Deontological Ethics

Under this principle, failure to increase the good of others when one is knowingly in a position to do so is morally wrong. Nonetheless, the principle is usually understood restrictively: Formally, the principle or duty of beneficence corresponds to the virtue or human characteristic of benevolence; in common parlance, these terms are often used interchangeably.

Confidentiality — The principle that one should keep one's promises about information re disclosure. A subset of duties of fidelity. Consequentialist theories — Generally, a normative approach to morality that views what should be done as determined by consequences. More rarely, consequentialist theories can be merely descriptive in character -- that is a view of how moraliity is derived, desirability issues aside.

Also labeled teleological theories. Compare with deontological non-consequentialist theories.

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Deontological non-consequentialist theories — Generally, a normative stance that views what should be done as determined by fundamental principles that do not derive solely or even primarily from consequences. An act or rule is right insofar as it satisfies the demands of some over-riding non-consequentialist principle of moral duty. Deontologists sometimes stress that the value of actions lies more in motives than in consequences. Religious revelation "divine command" is the historically common foundation for deontological moral principles: Natural law or human reason may also be cited as sources.

  • Modern ethics, especially since the 18th-century German deontological philosophy of Immanuel Kant , has been deeply divided between a form of teleological ethics utilitarianism and deontological theories;
  • Deontological Ethics There are two major ethics theories that attempt to specify and justify moral rules and principles:

Some philosophers and many sociobiologists take the position that deontological principles are simply those that have "tested out" as having good consequences over a long period, and are accordingly sanctioned by custom, religious practice, etc. Duty — Action, or an act, that is due by moral or legal obligation. Duty need not be grounded only in the strong language of rights. Day-to-day social interactions also give rise to notions of duty: Many moral philosophers have argued that participation in a political-social system creates a duty to abide by its laws and standards but see civil disobedience.

Facts and values — Bifurcation of the world into statements about what is facts and what ought to be values. The division is by no means universally accepted; and those that accept the division are not necessarily in close agreement on the dividing line. One of the central controversies of moral philosophy is whether value judgements including moral judgements can ultimately be proved, verified or justified in terms of facts or rational reasoning.

Teleological ethics

Fidelity — The principle that one should keep one's promises. Justice — Commonly described as fairness, but more closely aligned to the concept of "desert" pronounced like, but not to be confused with, "dessert" of the ice-cream et al variety: One has acted justly toward a person when one gives that person what is due or owed, and therefor what is deserved.

Common to all definitions of justice is the minimal principle that relevantly similar cases persons be treated alike. Unfortunately, the definition of "relevantly similar" is not always self-evident. Some of the most intractable questions about justice arise over how to specify and prioritize among the relevant characteristics by which people are to be considered equal or unequal.

Moreover, the principle of "treat equals equally" leaves unanswered the question of appropriate differences in treatment, when relevant dissimilarities are found to exist.

Egoism utilitarianism teleology deontology relativist virtue ethics justice

The term "distributive justice" refers, more restrictively, to the distribution of social benefits and burdens; "retributive justice" applies to issues of correction and punishment; "procedural justice" refers to social processes most familiarly, in the judicial system. Egalitarian theories of justice stress equal access to primary social goods; libertarian theories of justice give primacy to social and economic freedom; Marxist theories emphasize need "to each according to his needs; from each according to his abilities" ; utilitarian theories are focused on criteria to maximize well-being; and so on.

Morality ethics — The science of human duty; the rules of human conduct. The function of morality is "to combat the deleterious consequences of human sympathies" Beauchamp.

Its aim is "to contribute to betterment -- or at least non-deterioration -- of the human predicament" Warnock. They are 1 supremely authoritative or over-riding as a guide to action; 2 prescriptive, not merely descriptive; and 3 universalizable, to relevantly similar situations.

  • Autonomy — The principle of respect for persons, and of individual self-determination consistent with that principle;
  • Start studying business ethics chapter 6 1teleology 2 egoism 3 utilitarianism 4 deontology 5 relativist 6virtue ethics 7 justice;
  • The function of morality is "to combat the deleterious consequences of human sympathies" Beauchamp;
  • Comments and corrections are appreciated and may be directed to cush miami.

But see also relativismas regards the last of these. Nonmaleficence — Moral principle that one should refrain from harming others "first, do no harm". Paternalism is an inherently liberty-limiting principle.

It is grounded in a theory of impairment, viz. It is sometimes defended by a theory of future consent: Rights — That which is due to individuals, based on core ethical principles. Rights create parallel duties on the part of others, or on society as a whole. So-called negative rights are rights of non-interference e.

  1. Utilitarian -type theories hold that the end consists in an experience or feeling produced by the action.
  2. Justice — Commonly described as fairness, but more closely aligned to the concept of "desert" pronounced like, but not to be confused with, "dessert" of the ice-cream et al variety. Rules have the virtue of imposing a degree of "objectivity" by virtue of their inflexibility.
  3. Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that asserts that right and wrong are ethics defined. The history and background of ethical egoism down into ethical egoism, utilitarianism and virtue ethics for teleological theories and for deontological.
  4. Deontological Ethics There are two major ethics theories that attempt to specify and justify moral rules and principles. Teleological theories differ on the nature of the end that actions ought to promote.
  5. It is grounded in a theory of impairment, viz.

Positive rights, by contrast, are rights of "recipience" e. Rule deontology — Theory that non-consequentialist principles must be applied in the form of rules, and that such rules determine whether particular acts are right or wrong. Contrast with act deontology. See also act utilitarianismrule utilitarianism. Rule utilitarianism — Theory that the principle of utility is or ought to be the source of rules of conduct, and that such rules determine whether particular acts are right or wrong.

Rules justified by their general utilitarian consequences may nonetheless require actions that do not maximize utility in particular circumstances. The justification is that, despite such cases, overall egoism utilitarianism teleology deontology relativist virtue ethics justice is maximized by a rule-following system, compared to the alternative of having individuals decide on conduct in particular circumstances. Human beings have a notoriously difficult time being impartial about utility or anything else in matters involving their self-interest.

Rules have the virtue of imposing a degree of "objectivity" by virtue of their inflexibility. Consistency requires that rules be applied in the same way to relevantly similar circumstances. Unfortunately, what is relevantly similar is not always clear. Contrast with act utilitarianism. See also act deontologyrule deontology. Utilitarianism — A conception of the moral life in terms of means-to-ends reasoning. An act or rule is right insofar as it produces or leads to the maximization of good consequences utility.

See act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism. Veracity — The principle that one should tell the truth "honesty is the best policy". Virtues correspond to principles or duties: Comments and corrections are appreciated and may be directed to cush miami.