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Environmental influences that promote the physical cognitive and psychosocial development of an 8 ye

All aspects of child development are interconnected Figure 1. For example, a child's ability to learn new information is influenced by his ability to interact appropriately with others and his ability to control his immediate impulses.

Thinking About the Whole Child: Domains of Development Figure 1. InThe Urban Child Institute and the University of Tennessee Department of Preventative Medicine started a large-scale study of 1, pregnant women, starting in their second trimester, to identify what factors during pregnancy and early childhood affect a child's development and ability to learn.

Women had generally healthy pregnancies and, similar to Shelby County mothers who recently gave birth, were mostly African-American and low-income women.

In Shelby County, the CANDLE Study has collected biological, physical, and behavioral data to help us better understand these connections and their collective influence on child well-being. What is social and emotional development? Social and emotional development is the change over time in children's ability to react to and interact with their social environment.

Social and emotional development is complex and includes many different areas of growth. Each is described in more detail below: Children develop in all of these areas of growth from birth through four years. These milestones help us know whether children are developing "on time. What should parents do if they are concerned about their child's development? Social and emotional milestones let us know if a child is gaining skills in the time frame we would expect.

However, sometimes children will be a bit early or a bit late on some of these milestones. If parents have concerns about their child's development, encourage them to speak to their pediatrician. Learn More About Milestones What is temperament?

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Have you ever noticed how babies have personalities, even from the day they are born? Temperament is the beginning of personality. It typically refers to the way a young child acts and responds to different situations, and how he or she interacts with caregivers and strangers. Most children fall into one of three temperament categories: Slow-to-warm-up babies are more hesitant in new situations and with unfamiliar people. Difficult babies are easily agitated and very sensitive to all sights and sounds.

Given that children have different temperaments, parents and other caregivers need to learn how to create environments that best support their children's temperaments. Nationally, more than half 55 percent of infants display at least one characteristic of a difficult temperament most of the time, suggesting that many of these characteristics are common Figure 1.

For instance, most infants want attention and company. However, when an infant demands attention through crying, fits, or whimpering most of the time, this may be a sign of a difficult temperament. And, together these behaviors make caring for difficult babies challenging for many parents. In fact, 22 percent of infants displayed two or more of these characteristics most of the time.

What does a child who is slow-to-warm-up or difficult need? Keep the home and outside environment as predictable as possible. At the same time, gently expose the child to new experiences.

This may help foster the child's social and emotional development in a way that supports the child's unique needs.

  • In Shelby County, the CANDLE Study has collected biological, physical, and behavioral data to help us better understand these connections and their collective influence on child well-being;
  • Some skills associated with this domain include feeding, dressing, toileting, and drinking independently.

Signs of Difficult Temperament: Percent of infants who display behavior most times Figure 1. Attachment is the emotional bond between a child and caregiver. First, it motivates children to stay near a caregiver, which keeps them safe. Second, it allows children to depend on their caregiver as a source of support as they explore their surroundings. Children who do this successfully have what is often called "secure attachment. Promotes a positive relationship between a child and caregiver Decreases risk for social and emotional problems later in childhood and adulthood Encourages healthy relationships outside the home e.

Nationally, about two-thirds 62—66 percent of infants and toddlers have secure attachment styles.

Phase I, What is social competence? Social competence refers to a person's ability to get along with others and adapt to new situations. For example, babies make eye contact, imitate facial expressions, and respond to voices. As children age, they interact more with other children and adults, which helps them to learn additional social skills. Play gives children a chance to practice different social skills.

They learn to acknowledge others' feelings, play "nicely," share, and resolve conflict. As children get older, play becomes more interactive, further improving their social skills and preparing them for more active social interactions inside and outside the home.

What is emotion regulation? Emotion regulation is the ability of a child to control his or her emotions and reactions to his or her environment. This does not mean that a child should be happy, brave, and calm all of the time. It is normal, for example, for babies to cry to communicate needs or for toddlers to throw temper tantrums and push boundaries. But some children have a harder time calming down. Nationally, approximately 26 percent of children 12 months of age exhibited problem behaviors related to a lack of emotion regulation.

Doesn't Shelby County already support social and emotional development? Today, Shelby County spends more time talking about child social and emotional development and its importance than in the past. But, schools, community organizations, and other local child service organizations have traditionally paid less attention to social and emotional development than cognitive outcomes and academic success.

Want to know more? Read more about kindergarten readiness Why is it important to invest in social and emotional development? One theory suggests that intervening with very young children at higher risk of social and emotional difficulties produces the largest gains in terms of skill development over time Figure 1.

In essence, pay now or pay more later.

Unfortunately, a number of children struggle with at least one area of social and emotional development. These children and society may benefit from investments to set them on the best path forward. But we need to know what works, for whom, and under what circumstances, as well as where and how much to invest. In the next chapters, Off to a Good Start explores the issue of social and emotional development in more detail and provides insights for how each of us can help.

There is no "one size fits all" approach. Off to a Good Start offers some quick tips to support child social and emotional development, but it is important to review the evidence when selecting a more comprehensive program or policy. This book is designed to help improve understanding of the social and emotional development of children in Shelby County and help community members think about how they can make a difference.

To do this, the report pulls together data from both local sources of information and national sources. A list of these resources is available in Appendix A. The use of both local and national data highlights the knowledge available in Shelby County about social and emotional development, identifies differences and similarities between our local community and the overall United States, and emphasizes areas where additional information is needed to understand the local issues.

  1. To do this, the report pulls together data from both local sources of information and national sources.
  2. Have you ever noticed how babies have personalities, even from the day they are born?
  3. The Bayley Scale for Infant Development2 was applied separately to assess children's mental development. Rutter M, Sroufe LA.
  4. Chance GW, Harmsen E. Infants like to be held and cuddled when awake and begin to establish a bond or emotional attachment with parents and caregivers which evolve into a sense of trust and security.

What is next in the book? Chapter Two provides a snapshot of the children living in Shelby County and their families, with attention to factors that influence social and emotional development.

Chapter Three takes a closer look at factors in the home environment that could be addressed to support social and emotional development in young children. Chapter Four examines factors related to caregivers and child-care settings that could be addressed to support social and emotional development in younger children.

Chapter Five summarizes the key findings from this book. This chapter also identifies action steps to promote and support healthy social and emotional development for the youngest residents of Shelby County. Regional gray matter growth, sexual dimorphism, and cerebral asymmetry in the neonatal brain. Journal of Neuroscience, 27 6— Stable neuron numbers from cradle to grave. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 33— How the timing and quality of early experiences influence the development of brain architecture.

Child Development, 81 128— National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. The timing and quality of early experiences combine to shape brain architecture.

Child temperament and parenting. Handbook of Parenting, 1, — American Psychologist, 34 10p. Assessed in the strange situation and at home. A prospective, longitudinal study from birth to adulthood. Placing early attachment experiences in developmental context. From infancy and childhood to adulthood. Illinois Early Learning Project website. Retrieved Septemberfrom: Learning as we go: A first snapshot of Early Head Start programs, staff, families, and children.

Department of Health and Human Services. Skill formation and the economics of investing in disadvantaged children.