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Kotler p keller k l 2007 a framework for marketing management

Etymology[ edit ] According to etymologists, the term 'marketing' first appeared in dictionaries in the sixteenth century where it referred to the process of buying and selling at a market. These branches are often deeply divided and have very different roots. The history of marketing practice is grounded in the management and marketing disciplines, while the history of marketing thought is grounded in economic and cultural history.

This means that the two branches ask very different types of research questions and employ different research tools and frameworks. Mosaic patterns in the atrium of his house were decorated with images of amphora bearing his personal brand and quality claims.

The mosaic comprises four different amphora, one at each corner of the atrium, and bearing labels as follows: Wine jars, for example, were stamped with names, such as "Lassius" and "L. Eumachius;" probably references to the name of the producer.

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Carbonised loaves of bread, found at Herculaneum, indicate that some bakers stamped their bread with the producer's name. These ancient societies imposed strict forms of quality control over commodities, and also needed to convey value to the consumer through branding. Producers began by attaching simple stone seals to products which over time were transformed into clay seals bearing impressed images, often associated with the producer's personal identity thus giving the product a personality.

She has shown that amphoras used in Mediterranean trade between 1500 and 500 BCE exhibited a wide variety of shapes and markings, which provided information for transactions. Systematic use of stamped labels dates from around the fourth century BCE. In a largely pre-literate society, the shape of the amphora and its pictorial markings conveyed information about the contents, region of origin and even the identity of the producer which were understood to convey information about product quality.

Moore and Reid, for example, have argued that the distinctive shapes and markings in ancient containers should be termed proto-brands rather than modern brands.

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Some analysts have suggested that the term, 'marketing,' may have first been used in the context of market towns where the term 'marketing' may have been used by producers to describe the process of carting and selling their produce and wares in market towns. Blintiff has investigated the early Medieval networks of market towns and suggests that by the 12th century there was an upsurge in the number of market towns and the emergence of merchant circuits as traders bulked up surpluses from smaller regional, different day markets and resold them at the larger centralised market towns.

Their investigation shows that in regional districts markets were held once or twice a week, while daily markets were more common in the larger cities and towns.

Over time, permanent shops began to open daily and gradually supplanted the periodic markets. Peddlers filled in the gaps in distribution by travelling door-to-door in order to sell produce and wares. The physical market was characterised by transactional exchange, bartering systems were commonplace and the economy was characterised by local trading.

Braudel reports that, in 1600, goods travelled relatively short distances - grain 5—10 miles; cattle 40—70 miles; wool and wollen cloth 20—40 miles.


However, following the European age of discovery, goods were imported from afar - calico cloth from India, porcelain, silk and tea from China, spices from India and South-East Asia and tobacco, sugar, rum and coffee from the New World.

It is considered the world's earliest identified printed advertising medium. Although the rise of consumer culture and marketing in Britain and Europe have been studied extensively, less is known about developments elsewhere.

The rise of a consumer culture led to the commercial investment in carefully managed company image, retail signage, symbolic brands, trademark protection and the brand concepts of baoji, hao, lei, gongpin, piazi and pinpai, which roughly equate with Western concepts of family status, quality grading, and upholding traditional Chinese values p. Eckhardt and Bengtsson's analysis suggests that brands emerged in China as a result of the social needs and tensions implicit in consumer culture, in which brands provide social status and stratification.

Thus, the evolution of brands in China stands in sharp contrast to the West where manufacturers pushed brands onto the market in order to differentiate, increase market share and ultimately profits pp 218—219. Marketing in seventeenth and eighteenth century Europe[ edit ] Josiah Wedgewood's 18th century techniques exhibited many of the characteristics of modern marketing Scholars have identified specific instances of marketing practices in England and Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

As trade between countries or regions grew, companies required information on which to base business decisions. Individuals and companies carried out formal and informal research on trade conditions.

History of marketing

As early as 1380, Johann Fugger travelled from Augsburg to Graben in order to gather information on the international textile industry. He exchanged detailed letters on trade conditions in relevant areas. In the early 18th-century, Daniel Defoea London merchant, published information on trade and economic resources of England and Scotland.

Other scholars have found evidence of advertising and promotion in eighteenth century France and Italy as well as Britain. Far from being primitive efforts, early advertising showed a high level of sophistication in its execution and abilility to reach mass audiences. He also inferred that selling at lower prices would lead to higher demand and recognised the value of achieving scale economies in production. By cutting costs and lowering prices, Wedgewood was able to generate higher overall profits.

He also practiced planned obsolescence and understood the importance of 'celebrity marketing' - that is supplying the nobility, often at prices below cost and of obtaining royal patronage, for the sake of the publicity and cudos generated.

The business historian, Richard S. Tedlowargues that any attempt to segment markets prior to 1880 was highly fragmented since the economy was characterised by small, regional suppliers who mostly sold goods on a local or regional basis. Outside the major metropolitan cities, few stores could afford to serve one type of clientele exclusively.

  • The history of marketing practice is grounded in the management and marketing disciplines, while the history of marketing thought is grounded in economic and cultural history;
  • Relationship marketing Starting in the 1990s, a new stage of marketing emerged called relationship marketing.

However, gradually retail shops introduced innovations that would allow them to separate wealthier customers from the lower classes and peasants.

One technique was to have a window opening out onto the street from which customers could be served. This allowed the sale of goods to the common people, without encouraging them to come inside. Another solution, that came into vogue from the late sixteenth century was to invite favoured customers into a back-room of the store, where goods were permanently on display. Yet another technique that emerged around the same time was to hold a showcase of goods in the shopkeeper's private home for the benefit of wealthier clients.

Samuel Pepys, for example, writing in 1660, describes being invited to the home of a retailer to view a wooden jack. A study of the German book trade found examples of both product differentiation and market segmentation in the 1820s. Ford famously said that customers could own a car in any colour as long as it was black. Until the nineteenth century, Western economies were characterised by small regional suppliers who sold goods on a local or regional basis.

However, as transportation systems improved from the mid nineteenth century, the economy became more unified allowing companies to distribute standardised, branded goods a national level. This gave rise to a much broader mass marketing mindset. Manufacturers tended to insist on strict standardisation in order to achieve scale economies with a view kotler p keller k l 2007 a framework for marketing management keeping production costs down and also to achieving market penetration in the early stages of a product's life cycle.

In the early twentieth century, as market size increased, it became more commonplace for manufacturers to produce a variety of models pitched at different quality points designed to meet the needs of various demographic and lifestyle market segments, giving rise to the widespread practice of market segmentation and product differentation.

This insight led to the exploration of other factors such as lifestyles, values, attitudes and beliefs in market segmentation and advertising. Smith published his now classic article, Product Differentiation and Market Segmentation as Alternative Marketing Strategies in 1956, he noted that he was simply documenting marketing practices that had been observed for some time and which he described as a "natural force".

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To meet this demand, universities began offering courses in commerce, economics and marketing. Marketing, as a discipline, was first taught in universities in the very early twentieth century.

From the outset, researchers tended to identify two strands of historical research; the history of marketing practice [55] and the history of marketing thought which was fundamentally concerned with the rise of marketing education and dissecting the way that marketing was taught and studied. History of marketing practice[ edit ] The practice of marketing may have been carried out for millennia, but the modern concept of marketing as a professional practice appears to have emerged the post industrial corporate world.

A key question that has preoccupied researchers is whether it is possible to identify specific orientations or mindsets that inform key periods in marketing's evolution. Marketers disagree about the way that marketing practice has evolved over time. An orientation may be defined as "the type of activity or subject that an organisation seems most interested in and gives most attention to".

Global Edition a Framework for Management 6e by Philip T. Kotler

Space prevents an exhaustive description of all periods or eras. However, the salient features of the most commonly cited periods appear in the following section. Production orientation[ edit ] The production orientation is one of the oldest philosophies that guides sellers A production orientation is often proposed as the first of the so-called orientations that dominated business thought. Keith dated the production era from the 1860s to the 1930s, but other theorists argue that evidence of the production orientation can still be found in some companies or industries.

Specifically Kotler and Armstrong note that the production philosophy is "one of the oldest philosophies that guides sellers" and "is still useful in some situations". Minimal promotion and advertisingmarketing communications limited to raising awareness of the product's existence Selling orientation[ edit ] The sales orientation, often characterised by door-to-door selling is thought to have begun during the Great Depression of the 1890s and continues to this day.

A Rawleigh's salesman in 1915 The selling orientation is thought to have begun during the Great Depression and continued well into the 1950s although examples of this orientation can still be found today. Aggressive selling to push products, often involving door-to-door selling Accepting every possible sale or booking, regardless of its suitability for the business Strong transactional focus ignores potential relationships The marketing orientation or the marketing concept emerged in the 1950s.

Characteristics of the marketing orientation: Societal marketing Phillip Kotler is often credited with first proposing the societal marketing orientation or concept in an article published kotler p keller k l 2007 a framework for marketing management the Harvard Business Review in 1972.

Instead, marketing activities should strive to benefit society's overall well-being. Marketing organisations that have embraced the societal marketing concept typically identify key stakeholder groups including: They ensure that marketing activities do not damage the environment and are not hazardous to broader society.

Societal marketing developed into sustainable marketing. Characteristics of societal marketing: Companies must include social and ethical considerations into their marketing practices Consideration is given to the environment includes problems such as air, water, and land pollution Consideration is given to consumer rights, unfair pricing and ethics in advertising Main article: Relationship marketing Starting in the 1990s, a new stage of marketing emerged called relationship marketing.

The focus of relationship marketing is on a long-term relationship that benefits both the company and the customer. One study suggests that relationship marketing is really a sub-component of large scale movements of the value-added process rather than a separate era or framework. In a major review of the periodisation approach, Hollander et al.

Of these, the contributions of Robert Keith 1960 and Ronald Fullerton 1988 are the most frequently cited. He traced three distinct eras in Pillsbury's evolution: Keith's notion of distinct eras in the evolution of marketing practice has been widely criticised and his periodisation described as "hopelessly flawed". It ignores historical facts about business conditions [87] It misstates the nature of supply and demand [87] It slights the growth of marketing institutions [88] The article, which is entirely based on Keith's personal recollections and did not use a single reference, is best described as anecdotal.

Systematic studies carried out since Keith's work have failed to replicate Keith's periodisation. Instead, other studies suggest that many companies exhibited a marketing orientation in the 19th-century and that the business schools were teaching marketing decades before Pillsbury adopted a marketing-oriented approach.

Grundey summarised five different periodisations in the history of marketing, as shown in the following table, as a means of highlighting the general lack of agreement among scholars.