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The benefits and impact of genome sequencing

The benefits of genome sequencing

Send by email The benefits of genome sequencing Two of the main reasons for sequencing plant and animal genomes are to fight diseases and increase crop and livestock quality. Since the early 2000s, INRA has been at the forefront of such genome sequencing efforts. The chicken is not only mass-produced for its meat, it is also a model species used in immunology and developmental biology research.

  • Gene Unit of heredity composed of DNA occupying a fixed position on a chromosome;
  • The renowned scientist, James Watson stated that the completed map of the human genome would serve as the "official instruction book for human life" and "a giant resource".

The dairy cow followed in 2009. The use of high-throughput genotyping tools made it possible to identify the genes responsible for the decline in herd fertility that has been observed for more than 30 years.

  • To what extent will it be considered acceptable to play with people's genes?
  • A particular mutation signals an almost certainty the patient will develop the disease;
  • The first is to analyze the physical structure and organization of the genome, which is composed of DNA molecules;
  • Seven percent use it in hiring and promotions.

One direct benefit has been the replacement of low-fertility herds. In 2012, the pig, another major livestock species, had its turn. Its genome was fully characterized by a research consortium of which INRA is a member.

As a result, it will now be possible to carry out much more targeted genetic breeding in this species. Expectations are also high in the field of human medicine: Finally, the recent sequencing of the genome of the Texel, a Belgian sheep breed, has made it possible to breed animals with larger muscles whose high-quality meat is flavorful.

Sequencing plant genomes to improve crop quality and disease resistance There have also been major benefits derived from sequencing the genomes of crops. Sequencing of the genome of Arabidopsis thalianaa model flowering plant species 2007: Sequencing of the grape genome—the result has been improved disease resistance e.

Sequencing of the genome of the tomatoa model for other Solanaceae species e. Sequencing of the barley genome—the result has been improved disease resistance and reduced pesticide use 2014: Next, it is necessary to identify the genes encoded the benefits and impact of genome sequencing the DNA, map their locations, and determine their genomic roles. Significant research efforts are required because the process involves such tasks as genetic and physical mapping and an examination of the transcriptome and proteome.

Glossary DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid.

  • Many genetics-related benefits exist, which are becoming increasingly evident, but many people still wonder about the effect of this knowledge on the many different levels of society;
  • Most people do not like change until they get used to it, and people are still wary and uncertain of this revolutionary science.

DNA is a long molecule, a polymer, in the form of a double helix. There are four types of nucleotides found in DNA; they differ in the type of nitrogenous bases they contain.

These bases are adenine abbreviated Athymine Tcytosine Cand guanine G. A strand of DNA therefore comprises a variable sequence of different nucleotides. The strands are said to be complementary because certain nitrogenous bases always pair together i. Gene Unit of heredity composed of DNA occupying a fixed position on a chromosome.

A gene may determine an individual trait by specifying a polypeptide chain that forms a protein or part of a protein a structural gene ; regulating the operation of other genes an operator gene ; or repressing such an operation a repressor gene.

Genomics The study of whole genomes.

Sequencing animal genomes to improve livestock production and human health

Researchers in this field are focused on two different tasks. The first is to analyze the physical structure and organization of the genome, which is composed of DNA molecules.

The second is to examine gene functions, regulation, and interactions. Genotyping Characterization of a DNA sequence that determines a specific trait i.