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The effects of bullying during the adolescent years

The Psychological Effects of Bullying on Kids & Teens

For permission to use where not already granted under a licence please go to http: Abstract Bullying is the systematic abuse of power and is defined as aggressive behaviour or intentional harm-doing by peers that is carried out repeatedly and involves an imbalance of power.

This review considers the importance of bullying as a major risk factor for poor physical and mental health and reduced adaptation to adult roles including forming lasting relationships, integrating into work and being economically independent. Bullying by peers has been mostly ignored by health professionals but should be considered as a significant risk factor and safeguarding issue. Child Abuse, Psychology, School Health, General Paediatrics, Outcomes research Definition and epidemiology Bullying is the systematic abuse of power and is defined as aggressive behaviour or intentional harm-doing by peers that is carried out repeatedly and involves an imbalance of power, either actual or perceived, between the victim and the bully.

Box 1 Bullying screener Direct bullying refers to harming others by directly getting at them.

Long-term effects of bullying

It is done by one or a group of pupils repeatedly against some children at school. Over and over again some children at school: Get deliberately left out of get-togethers, parties, trips or groups Have others ignore them, not wanting to be their friend anymore, or not wanting them around in their group Have nasty lies, rumours or stories told about them Cyberbullying is when someone tries to upset and harm a person using electronic means eg, mobile phones, text messages, instant messaging, blogs, websites eg, Facebook, YouTube or emails Have their private email, instant mail or text messages forwarded to someone else or have them posted where others can see them Have rumours spread about them online Get threatening or aggressive emails, instant messages or text messages Have embarrassing pictures posted online without their permission Answered for A, B, and C separately on this 4-point scale How often have these things happened to you in the last 6 months?

Never Quite a lot more than 4 times A lot at least once a week How often have you done these things to others in the last 6 months? Never Quite a lot more than 4 times A lot at least once a week Victims: It is considered an evolutionary adaptation, the purpose of which is to gain high status and dominance, 14 get access to resources, secure survival, reduce stress and allow for more mating opportunities.

Moreover, unlike conduct disorder, bullies are found in all socioeconomic 18 and ethnic groups.

The Social and Mental Effects of Adolescent Bullying May Last Through Adulthood

How bullies operate Bullying occurs in settings where individuals do not have a say concerning the group they want to be in. In an effort to establish a social network or hierarchy, bullies will try to exert their power with all children. Those who have an emotional reaction eg, cry, run away, are upset and have nobody or few to stand up for them, are the repeated targets of bullies. It has been shown that conditions that foster higher density and greater hierarchies in classrooms inegalitarian conditions21 at home 22 or even in nations, 23 increase bullying 24 and the stability of bullying victimisation over time.

Thus, this review focuses mostly on prospective studies that were able to control for pre-existing health conditions, family situation and other exposures to violence eg, family violence in investigating the effects of being involved in bullying on subsequent health, self-harm and suicide, schooling, employment and social relationships.

  1. It is harmful to bystanders themselves, making them more likely to drink and smoke, skip school, and become anxious or depressive. By refusing to tolerate bullying, adults send the message that the child is not stuck in a helpless situation that will not change.
  2. It is obvious when a child is being bullied.
  3. Some victims of bullying have even attempted suicide rather than continue to take such harassment and punishment. Help your child practice being assertive.
  4. Anyone can be affected by bullying and it often happens in school, online, and in the workplace.
  5. These findings suggest that bullying involvement, as a victim, perpetrator, or both, can impair later psychosocial functioning. She especially enjoys using music therapy for mental and emotional well-being.

Childhood and adolescence 6—17 years A fully referenced summary of the consequences of bullying during childhood and adolescence on prospectively studied outcomes up to the age of 17 years is shown in table 1.

Children who were victims of bullying have been consistently found to be at higher risk for common somatic problems such as colds, or psychosomatic problems such as headaches, stomach aches or sleeping problems, and are more likely to take up smoking.

Bullying and Depression: The Long-term Effects on Kids and Teens

Internalising problems was found to have increased over time only in those who were bullied, 32 providing strong evidence that bullying rather than other factors explains increases in internalising problems. Furthermore, victims of bullying are at significantly increased risk of self-harm or thinking about suicide in adolescence.

Bullies were also more likely to display delinquent behaviour and perpetrate dating violence by eighth grade.