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Theories explains the actions of high tech offenders

Historically, there are three broad theoretical models of criminal behavior: A psychological B sociological C biological All infer different methods of control, but it is difficult to completely separate the three categories as it is generally accepted that all three of the factors play a role in the expression of behavior.

Moreover, psychological science consists of several disciplines including biological psychology and social psychology, so psychological principles could be applied across all three domains. However, there are some general principles associated with each of these paradigms that would be associated with some specific crime control policies.

Three Theories of Criminal Behavior

This results in admittedly narrow definition for each of the categories, but it does simplify the discussion herein. Psychological Approaches There a many different psychological models of criminal behavior ranging from early Freudian notions to later cognitive and social psychological models. I cannot review them all here. Instead, I will list the several fundamental assumptions of psychological theories explains the actions of high tech offenders of criminality and human behavior in general.

The individual is the primary unit of analysis in psychological theories. Personality is the major motivational element that drives behavior within individuals. Normality is generally defined by social consensus. Crimes then would result from abnormal, dysfunctional, or inappropriate mental processes within the personality of the individual. Criminal behavior may be purposeful for the individual insofar as it addresses certain felt needs.

Defective, or abnormal, mental processes may have a variety of causes, i. The last assumption of the psychological model would suggest that a variety of different causes or reasons exist for criminal behavior and that general principles targeted at the individual would be effective for crime control.

However, the model also assumes that there is a subset of a psychological criminal type, defined currently as antisocial personality disorder in the DSM-IV and previously defined as the sociopath or psychopath APA, 2002. Controls for these individuals would be more extreme and general public policies may not be stringent enough to curb the behavior in this small subset of criminals. Given these six principles to establish psychological explanations of criminal behavior, we can suggest first that traditional imprisonment, fines, and other court sanctions are based on operant learning models of behavior for crime control.

Operant learning models are based on the utilitarian concepts that all people wish to maximize pleasure and minimize pain or discomfort. Skinnerian based social psychological theories of reinforcement and punishment are influential in this model of criminal control although the idea of punishment for crime has a much longer history Jeffery, 1990. Technically speaking, punishments are any sanctions designed to decrease a specific behavior; thus, fines, jail sentences, etc.

However, Skinner himself recognized that punishment was generally ineffective in behavior modification and that reinforcement worked better e. A caveat should be applied here: Punishment is effective if applied properly, but unfortunately it rarely is applied properly. Punishment needs to be immediate or as close to the time the offense as possibleinescapable, and sufficiently unpleasant in fact, the more it is subjectively perceived as harsh, the better.

Given the judicial system in the U.

Nonetheless, punishments and sanctions for criminal behavior are based on behavioral psychological principles. Because harsh forms of punishment do not appear to significantly decrease recidivism rates, other psychological principles have been applied. In terms of cognitive behavioral psychological principles, rehabilitation and relearning, retraining, or educational programs for offenders are forms of psychologically based methods to control crime.

These methods are based on the cognitive behavioral methods of teaching an alternative functional response in place of a formally dysfunctional one as opposed to simple punishment. These programs can take place in prisons or outside of the prison and have long been demonstrated to be successful e. So any form of retraining, reeducation, or reentry guidance is based on psychological principles of criminality and reform.

However, rehabilitation programs are often rarely implemented in jail or prison. Many of these programs appear to be especially beneficial for drug and alcohol offenders.

  • Technically speaking, punishments are any sanctions designed to decrease a specific behavior; thus, fines, jail sentences, etc;
  • International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 4 1 , 643-656;
  • Drugs, electroshock, and the psychopharmaceutical complex;
  • More recently there have been efforts to develop methods to identify individuals at risk for certain forms of deviant behavior including criminal activities based on personality and social variables.

Likewise, any form education such as the DARE program and recent efforts to curb bullying in schools are based on these methods. In line with this, changing the environment of the offender such as providing more opportunities would be a psychological behavioral principle designed to cut crime.

In line with other psychological methods are policies aimed at maintaining a visible presence of law enforcement and methods to maintain self-awareness in tempting situations. Such methods are preventative.

For instance, it has been a well-known social psychological principle that situations that diminish self-consciousness and self-awareness lead individuals to being less restrained, less self-regulated, and more likely to act without considering the consequences of their actions e. The simple act of placing mirrors in stores can increase self-awareness and decrease shoplifting.

Likewise, the presence of visible law enforcement can cut down on crime. Making sanctions and the consequences for crime well-publicized and available to the public is another psychological method to control crime in this vein.

Psychological Approaches

More recently there have been efforts to develop methods to identify individuals at risk for certain forms of deviant behavior including criminal activities based on personality and social variables. These psychological variables can be identified in the school or at the home at an early age and include such disorders as learning disabilities, ADHD, depression, and others.

Since many individuals with these problems often go on to demonstrate criminal behavior or have legal problems later efforts to identify and treat these issues are forms of psychological crime control policies APA, 2002. Thus, methods of crime control policies based on psychological principles target the individual and attempt to reform or prevent criminal behavior from that perspective. Any policies requiring therapeutic intervention, retraining, or education are psychological in nature.

Any policy designed at preventing crime by targeting individuals such as raising consciousness, promoting self awareness, or identifying individuals at risk are also psychological. So policies that are specifically designed to deal with repeat offenders are also based on psychological principles of criminality.

Sociological Approaches Sociological and psychological principles of criminality are intertwined and technically not independent. As with psychological theories, there are numerous sociological formulations of the cause and control of criminality.

We will define sociological notions of criminality as: How the contradictions of all of these interacting groups contribute to criminality. The ways these structures cultures and contradictions have historically developed. The current processes of change that these groups are undergoing.

Criminal Theories And High-Tech Offenders

Criminality is viewed from the point of view of the social construction of criminality and its social causes. Later sociologists used the term to describe the dissociation of the individual from the collective conscience or the criminality resulting from a lack of opportunity to achieve aspirations or by the learning of criminal values and behaviors. Therefore criminality results from the failure to properly socialize individuals and by unequal opportunities between groups.

Durkheim believed that crime was an inescapable fact of society and advocated maintaining crime within reasonable boundaries. Thus, certain types of human activity are harmful and are judged so by society as a whole. These include drug use, prostitution, etc. One of the sociological policy methods of crime control would be to advocate for decriminalization of these victimless crimes or at least a vast reduction in their penalties Schur, theories explains the actions of high tech offenders.

An important sociological control would be to increase legitimate opportunities for advancement and obtainment of goods and wealth in areas where these do not exist. Sociological controls targeted at this goal could originate in higher State and Federal levels of government as well as local levels of government and would include programs designed to guarantee equal opportunities to all individuals.

Thus, social programs ranging from soup kitchens, job training, educational funding, urban renewal projects and so forth would be in line with sociological policies to control crime Merton, 1968. Social programs aimed at socializing children properly and providing support for single family homes are also examples of sociological methods to control crime.

Finally, sociological policies to control crime would advocate stronger and harsher penalties for serious crimes such as murder, rape, are more effective law enforcement.

Hacking – Does Self-Control Theory Explain Participation in the Hacking Subculture?

Again, sociologists accept the reality that crime is a social phenomenon that will not disappear no matter how many interventions are enacted to control it. Sociologists note that of every 100 felonies committed within the United States, only one is sent to prison. A vast number are unreported and of those that are reported only a small portion goes to trial.

If a justice system is to work properly it must be able to rely on its law enforcement system and judicial system to bring to justice and prosecute serious offenders. The purposes of imprisonment include punishment, rehabilitation, deterrence, and selective confinement. Biological Approaches Biological theories of criminality basically purport that criminal behavior is the result of some flaw in the biological makeup of the individual. This physical flaw could be due to.

Heredity Neurotransmitter dysfunction Brain abnormalities that were caused by either of the above, improper development, or trauma Raine, 2002 Biological theorists would also endorse stricter penalties and better law enforcement techniques for crime control, but there are several methods of crime control that are specific to the biological theories of criminality. I will discuss these briefly here.

  • These include drug use, prostitution, etc;
  • Psychological Review, 100 4 , 674-701.

Brain surgery to control behavior has rarely been applied to criminal behavior. Lobotomies were used to treat a wide range of problems from depression, to schizophrenia. However, while widely discussed as a potential treatment for criminal behavior a perusal of the literature could not find a court ordered case for a lobotomy as a sentence for a convicted criminal Lobotomies were also used for people who were considered an annoyance because the demonstrated behaviors characterized as moody or they were children who were defiant with authority figures such as teachers.

The lobotomy involves separating the prefrontal cortex from the rest of the brain either surgically or in the case of the transorbital lobotomy with a sharp ice-pick like instrument that was inserted in the eye socket between the upper eyelid and the eye.

In this method the patient was not anesthetized, not even children. The psychiatrists hit the end of the instrument with a hammer to disconnect the nerves in the frontal lobe of the brain. Afterwards behaviors were changed, but at a high price as you can imagine. Today the lobotomy has fallen out of favor due medications used to control behavior, although some view the use of medications as equivalent to a lobotomy e. Psychosurgery appears to be an option that will most likely not be put into use due to the stigma associated with it.

Chemical methods of control: The use of pharmacological treatments to try to control crime has been ongoing in two major areas: However, addicts can stop the medication and return to use.

Sex offenders are closely monitored and there is some evidence that this policy has been efficacious. Sometimes mentally ill people in the criminal justice system been ordered to take medications to treat their mental illness.

  1. Thus, social programs ranging from soup kitchens, job training, educational funding, urban renewal projects and so forth would be in line with sociological policies to control crime Merton, 1968.
  2. NIDA notes, 10 4.
  3. Impulsiveness and shortsightedness also play a role in the engagement of individuals in hacking behaviors, with such characteristics blinding the offender to the ramifications of such a breach of trust as well as insensitivity to the amount of effort required on the part of the targeted victim s to attempt to prevent such behaviors Marcum et al. In fact, Buker 2011 states that the validity of the relationship between self-control and the commission of criminal acts is largely settled, with the primary focus of further inquiry lying in understanding the formation of self-control.

Other pharmacological interventions to control crime seem plausible and are being investigated, but do not appear to have been widely used.

Biological theorists have advocated changes in diet to deal with criminality Burton, 2002 and better relations between parents. There is also the famous genetic XYY combination that was once thought to be a marker for a criminal type, but as it turned out these individuals were found to be less intelligent or more likely to have learning difficulties as opposed to being criminal types. While there are many studies indicating a connection between antisocial personality disorder or criminal behavioral and heredity, there are no policies being implemented to advocate for selective breeding, genetic testing etc.

I do not yet envision a policy of genetic testing for criminals as the variables are not stable enough in order to predict with set of gene combinations are predictive of a biological criminal type Rutter, 2006 although this is certainly a possibility. If the biological model of criminality has any significant effect on policy outside the use of chemical castration for sex offenders, it would be the policy that certain forms of criminal behavior or certain individuals may not be rehabilitated and the advocacy for harsher and stricter imprisonments or even executions are viable methods of control in these instances.

The issue for the community is how to recognize a significant biological contribution to criminal behavior since genetic testing is unreliable and there are no other physical markers of criminality. It seems that currently in the absence of very harsh crimes like murder and rape one must be recognized as a repeat offender before we can acknowledge a possible innate tendency towards criminality. By that time the damage, which is often irreparable, is done.

  1. However, rehabilitation programs are often rarely implemented in jail or prison. As with psychological theories, there are numerous sociological formulations of the cause and control of criminality.
  2. RFID technology is on the person of nearly every human being in America. Correctional treatment helps offenders stay drug and arrest free.
  3. In fact, the most common reasons cited for engaging in hacking activities are fun and curiosity Richet, 2013. For instance, the use of software to target a server or set of servers and flood those systems with requests in an effort to deny access by legitimate users of the system, also known as a denial-of-service attack, does not require an individual to first break into the target system.