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What are the connections between critical thinking and creativity

The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between creative and critical thinking styles of post-secondary vocational students and their academic achievements. There is no association found between thinking styles and gender.

However, thinking style is found to be associated with academic achievements. The study concludes that both male and female students have similar predisposition in their critical and creative thinking styles and that thinking style is associated with academic achievements among post-secondary vocational students. Thus, there has been much research and discourse on thinking styles giving rise to many perspectives on thinking style from the management perspectives, education perspectives and business perspectives among others.

Each perspective may use different framework for classifying thinking style giving rise to many different labels being assigned to types of thinking styles. From the perspective of brain function, thinking style has been classified into four types, logical, holistic, interpersonal and sequential thinking style Herman, 1996.

The close relationship between thinking and learning some times lead to the interchangeable use of the terms. The two most desired thinking styles to be attained by learners through the education system is the creative and critical thinking style.

At The Intersection of Creativity and Critical Thinking

There is much debate on the definition of the two and no real consensus on what it means. A widely accepted is the one on creative thinking is given by Torrance 1967 where creative thinking is generally considered to be involved with the creation or generation of ideas, processes, experiences or objects Torrance, 1967.

Left brains style is characterised by information processing in a conceptual and analytic way, and right brain style is characterised by information processing in a direct and synthesis way Torrance et al.

Factors Contributing to Differences in Creative-Critical Thinking Style Differences in thinking style and its acquisition have been attributed to a number of variables, including age, gender, academic ability, socioeconomic status and culture.

With respect to creative thinking skills, Lehman 1953 proposes that the peak of creativity occurred at the age of thirty while Stenberg 1997 suggests that children are more creative before going to school because in schools students must follow the directions and regimentation of the school.

Many studies seem to concur on the association between creative thinking skills, culture and socio-economic status.

This is supported by Chua nd who found that secondary school students in Malaysia have lower creativity 2 3 index compared to their counterpart in the United State of America. From the socioeconomics perspective, studies indicate that children from high socioeconomic background tend to be more creative compared to their counterparts from the lower socio-economic background Weisberg, 2006.

Findings from past studies do not come to a consensus on the difference between creative and critical thinking styles between males and females Amabile, 1996. Of those who believe in thinking style difference, Herrmann 1996 was one of them.

He found that males have preference for logical and analytical thinking which is due to the left brain dominances, and females have preference to feelings and interpersonal based thinking which is due to the right brain dominance as measured by his Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument HBDI instrument.

Another researcher who believe in the gender difference in thinking style is Stenberg 1997 who using a different framework, found that males have Legislative, Internal, and liberal thinking styles, whereas females have executive or judicial, external and conservative thinking styles. He suggests that these differences could be manifested from the time people are born. Working environments that are male-dominated and female-dominated has also been found to affect creativity. Findings show that women appear to have higher creativity than men in a female-dominated environment Gordon, 2007.

Kelleher and Young, 1990Marlina Ali et al, 2006 and Sharifah Suhaila 2007 on the other hand find that there is difference between creative and critical thinking styles of males and females in the technical disciplines. Lack of thinking style difference in the technical disciplines could be attributable to the nature of the discipline, where it involves logical, fact based, complex, mathematical thinking and thus the need for exercising critical and creative thinking irrespective of gender Muhammad Rahmad, 2006.

Problem Statement Community colleges that were set under the Ministry of Higher Education to provide opportunities for those students who fail to secure places in higher learning institutions has implemented work-based learning programmes in selected colleges. In these programmes students go through two semesters of work-based learning WBL in industries to provide them with authentic working experience exposing them to the challenges of real life problems. Students work on assignments in the form of problems encountered in their field of work that requires them to apply their creative and critical thinking skills to analyse the problem, to generate ideas, to argue analytically and much more.

Better creative and critical thinking skills are expected to be the outcome after successfully undergoing these programmes as suggested by Wonacott, 2002. The purpose of this study was to investigate the thinking styles with respect to creative and critical thinking among community college students who have undergone the work-based learning programmes. The three research questions that guide this study were as follows: What is the predisposition of creative and critical thinking styles among Community College students?

Is there a difference in creative and critical thinking styles between males and females Community College students? Is there what are the connections between critical thinking and creativity relationship between creative and critical thinking styles with academic achievements?

Methodology The research participants consisted of hundred and nine final year Diploma students Table 1 from the Hotel and Catering, Electrical Technology, Computer Technology and Automotive Technology Diploma programmes from four community colleges under the Ministry of Higher Education.

Thirty minutes was given for them to respond to the 34 items in the test. Two types of thinking style were measured simultaneously by this instrument namely creative thinking style and creative thinking style. The scores obtained were used to classify a person into one of the following categories namely superior creative, creative, balance, critical or superior critical thinking.

  • Is there a difference in creative and critical thinking styles between males and females Community College students?
  • Thus, there has been much research and discourse on thinking styles giving rise to many perspectives on thinking style from the management perspectives, education perspectives and business perspectives among others;
  • This situation could be due to two possible reasons; females who have similar thinking styles to males tend to be attracted to the male dominated disciplines or the work-experience is contributing to the similarity in thinking style;
  • Two types of thinking style were measured simultaneously by this instrument namely creative thinking style and creative thinking style.

Two formats were used for the items, namely multiple answers items and open ended items. Scores for this test is calculated using the following formula Formula 1.

At The Intersection of Creativity and Critical Thinking

None of the participants falls under the superior creative or superior critical thinking style category. More males are observed than expected in the creative thinking group while more females than expected are in the critical thinking group.

Result of the Chi-square test on difference in thinking styles of males an females Values df p Pearson Chi Square 1. Observed frequency for creative group who are excellent academically are higher compared to the expected frequency. At the same time, higher frequency of critical thinkers is observed in the average and good academic groupings. Slightly more students were found to be creative thinkers than critical thinkers.

  • Model of thinking in young children;
  • The fact that no one achieves the superior position could also be a cause for concern and focus of further research;
  • In this example , a middle school math class learned about circuitry on their way to creating a keyboard made of bananas;
  • Generally speaking, creativity is associated with generating ideas, while critical thinking is associated with judging them;
  • Kelleher and Young, 1990 , Marlina Ali et al, 2006 and Sharifah Suhaila 2007 on the other hand find that there is difference between creative and critical thinking styles of males and females in the technical disciplines.

This is expected as participations in WBL programmes require students to be involved in creative endeavours in order to successfully deal with real life problems.

Students who had attended the WBL programmes were exposed to problem solving which required them to have creative 6 7 thinking style in addition to critical thinking style that is also a necessity to deal with the analytical and logical aspect of problem-solving. In addition to the work experience, age also influences creative thinking styles. According to Lehman 1953 and Jaquish 1980the peak of creative thinking occurs during the age of 18 to 25 years old.

Therefore, the finding in this study is consistent with previous findings. This study finds that thinking styles for males and females are not that different where similar percentage of both types of thinkers is found in both gender groups.

This situation could be due to two possible reasons; females who have similar thinking styles to males tend to be attracted to the male dominated disciplines or the work-experience is contributing to the similarity in thinking style. The finding in this study is inconsistent with studies on men working in female dominated profession. For example, men who work in the education field that has always been dominated by women was found to be not as creative as the women who work in the same field.

The current study also shows that there is a relationship between creative and critical thinking styles with academic achievement. It should be noted that the learning and teaching experience provided by community colleges are not heavy on theoretical knowledge. Throughout the implementation of WBL, students were evaluated by the employer in the industries on aspects of problem solving skills through given assignments, oral examinations, and presentations.

Therefore they must apply what are the connections between critical thinking and creativity creative and critical thinking skills to analyse problems, give opinions or argue analytically, analyse, prepare for assessments and to generate ideas to resolve problems.

Therefore, the higher number of cases of participants in the creative thinking style group is expected. The findings could be a possible indicator of the success of the WBL programme although a more controlled study is necessary to make a stronger claim on this.

Conclusion In conclusion, a slightly larger percentage of community college students are found to have creative thinking style and the trend is similar among males and females. Further to that, academic achievements of community college students are found to be associated with thinking styles where the number of creative thinkers is observed to be higher than expected among those who excel in 7 8 academics.

If indeed creative thinkers are more successful academically, more efforts should be focussed to improve creative thinking skills. However, the finding in this study is not conclusive as the method used lacks the necessary control that could lend itself to cause and effect conclusion.

Therefore, further study is needed to verify the findings and to make it more useful to the education community. The fact that no one achieves the superior position could also be a cause for concern and focus of further research. In all its limitation, the study does provide some indication of the status of community college students thinking styles in particular and Malaysian post-secondary vocational students in general.

Nurturing a lifetime of creativity. Relationship between critical and creative thinking. Journal of Southern Agricultural Education Research, 51 1173-188.

At The Intersection of Creativity and Critical Thinking

Chua Yan Piaw nd. Halangan pemikiran kreatif dalaman dan stail pemikiran minda guru pelatih kdpm semester 3. Learning and Thinking Styles: Educational Psychology, 20 4.

  • In this example , a middle school math class learned about circuitry on their way to creating a keyboard made of bananas;
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the thinking styles with respect to creative and critical thinking among community college students who have undergone the work-based learning programmes;
  • Is there a relationship between creative and critical thinking styles with academic achievements?
  • Scores for this test is calculated using the following formula Formula 1.

The Art of Thinking: The whole brain business book. Journal of Youth and Adolescents, 9 2143-152. The group embedded figure test: The learning effect reexaminated. Perceptual and Motor Skills. The relationship of creativity measures to school achievement and to preferred learning and thinking style in a sample of korea high school students.

Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55 171-87. Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. J, Princeton University Press. Tahap penguasaan kemahiran berfikir kritis di kalangan pelajar pendidikan fizik merentasi jantina. Muhammad Rahmat Md Padzil 2006. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia: Ng Aik Kwang 2001.

Why asians are less creative than westerners. Undergraduate agriculture student learning style and critical thinking abilities: Is there a relationship?. Journal of Agricultural Education. A comparative study of creative thinking of American and Japanese college students. Journal of Creative Behavior, 35 124-36. Syarifah Suhaila Syed Mohd Yamin.

Your style of learning and thinking, forms A and B: Preliminary norms, abbreviated technical notes, scoring keys, and selected references, Gifted Child Quarterly, 21, 563- 573.