Essays academic service

A description of canadians tending to identify with community and region rather than the nation

What do I need to know about verbal and non-verbal communications? Canadians jealously guard personal space and privacy, making them very reserved people.

It takes a while for them to warm up to newcomers, but this does not mean that Canadians are not welcoming. They are quite civil and polite. Thus a first contact will almost never include discussion on personal aspects of their lives, such as earnings, weight, diets, health conditions, etc.

This may change as the relationship develops or if it fits with the purpose of the meeting. When lining up in a public place, the bank for instance, Canadians require at least 14 inches of space and some people need more.

This rule should be applied when speaking to Canadians, especially if the speaker is a man addressing a woman. Men and women need and protect their space, sometimes with an active signal or else with more subtle body language that has to be monitored at all times. The rules vary from province to province, eg: Typically, people from Quebec greet each other using more physical signs such as hugs and kisses and may offer kisses on the cheek to newcomers after a few encounters.

Men tend to gesture more while conversing than women, and young people more than older people. In general; there is a unspoken code of decorum that has to be observed in public places and which can only be broken in big gatherings such as an outing to a restaurant. Making eye contact is a sign of respect and sincerity. It also signals a real engagement between speakers.

Most of the issues of communication, especially tone of voice, directedness, and even making eye contact are inscribed in a complex dynamics of gender and class; those with more prestige can afford to break the rules and have the licence to initiate or limit the degree of expression in the interaction. Canadians differ from one another.

In general, however, Canadians expect a high degree of respect for public and especially for private property and space.

  1. Historically, housing subsidies for on-reserve First Nations communities have been administered by government and other agencies, such as the CMHC, but those homes were often poorly constructed and not built to code. Concepts and definitions is used to provide a demographic profile of Aboriginal people in Canada.
  2. While adventure travel is extremely popular in Canada, I would encourage Canadians and non-Canadians alike to visit small towns and big cities as well to get a true sense of the diversity of Canadians and the beauty that the country has to offer. It is important to introduce oneself and to be clear about reasons for being there and aims, either in the meeting or before discussing the project at hand.
  3. According to the 2011 census, 49. In general, however, Canadians expect a high degree of respect for public and especially for private property and space.

Canadians will not necessarily maintain constant eye contact, but it is considered a sign of dishonesty or insecurity if a person refuses to or is reluctant to make eye contact. Canadians usually shake hands with both men and women, particularly in a public or professional setting. In some cases, especially among friends in French-speaking circles, men and women will often give each other a kiss on each cheek.

In English Canada, good friends will sometimes hug each other. Generally, men do not touch other men beyond the standard handshake unless they have reached a fairly high level of comfort with that person or they are playing sports. This rule is similar for contact between men and women. Women are less bound by these rules.

Family members will often maintain close physical contact with young children. Many Canadians find a lot of hand movement while talking distracting or even annoying; some see it as a sign of insecurity.

Nevertheless, Canadians may expect people of other cultures to use more hand movements and gestures. One gesture to avoid is waiving the index finger from side to side. Cultural Information - Display of Emotion Question: Are public displays of affection, anger or other emotions acceptable?

Consistent with a strong sense of personal space and with protestant prudence, it is not that common to see Canadians displaying affection in public. Strangers have verbally scorned me when I am hugging my partner on the street. Yelling in public is uncommon, unless people are inebriated or having a fit of road-rage. In the event that there is scene of violence or someone is being attacked verbally or physicallyit is likely that the Police would be called to intervene.

Canadians, in general, avoid conflict and confrontation and thus it is not common for people to intervene directly. The rules for reacting and displaying affection and emotions are quite similar in offices private or public sector. Decorum is highly valued and this implies limits on the types of displays of affection. The greeting is a handshake, irrespective of the rank or gender of the persons.

Well-acquainted colleagues may permit themselves more open expressions of affection, including kisses on the cheeks Canadians - if and when they kiss - usually would give two kisses, one on each cheek. Canadians do not appreciate aggressive behaviour or driving and have a low tolerance for shouting and public displays of affection.

  • This is not to say that there is not conflict and controversy or that everyone in the country sees eye-to-eye on all issues;
  • However, renovations to these homes decreased significantly from approximately 4,200 in 1997 to 2,700 in 2009.

Many Anglophone Canadians are uncomfortable with strong demonstrations of emotions, particularly if it is with someone they do not know well. In Quebec or in many immigrant communities, emotions may be more freely expressed.

What should I know about the workplace environment deadlines, dress, formality, etc. For the most part, Canada is a relatively informal and relaxed country. The common dress code for offices is informal to casual for both men and women. This may vary when comparing private and public sectors, the latter being the more informal. Larger cities are dressier than smaller towns. Canadian women wear little make-up and their clothes can be relatively conservative and comfortable.

Aboriginal Peoples in Canada: First Nations People, Métis and Inuit

Younger women can be seen in more revealing clothes and wearing more flattering outfits, especially in schools. In general, Canadians wear very dark and sober tones.

  1. Many groups are lobbying to have this right extended to include a range of different religions.
  2. Do not use Madam or Madame in English. Also in the 1980s, larger municipalities annexed adjoining lands and municipalities to increase their tax base.
  3. Punctuality is important and any issues that may arise should be discussed immediately with your business counterpart.

In summer, white and brighter colours are permissible. In keeping with the relaxed yet reserved attitude of the country, it is important to observe some basic rules when meeting someone for the first time: As time passes, the initial formalities will be replaced by a more comfortable relationship.

Junior people may address managers and superiors by their first name and establish a more equal relationship. Most often than not, the direction of the relationship is determined by those in higher ranks. Work styles and pace differ between workplaces but it is important to be clean.


Most Canadian work environments are very relaxed in terms of dress and level of formality, although shorts and jeans are not that common in office environments. Women tend not to wear very revealing or tight-fitting clothing, although this depends on the individual and on the workplace and the sector. In French, madame is used by default. Do not use Madam or Madame in English. Madam is frequently used sarcastically and disrespectfully and Madame is associated with the managers of brothels!

Quebec culture tends to be more hierarchical and the formal vous form is frequently used for strangers and elders especially in rural areas.

Social Conditions of Indigenous Peoples in Canada

However, the informal tu is used much more freely than in France or many other French-speaking countries. Many workplaces have some degree of flexibility in terms of hours worked and punctuality.

Canada Guide

Serving clients well and rapidly is usually a high priority. Overtime is often expected, especially in management positions. Lateness is not received well but, depending on the workplace, arriving five or ten minutes late occasionally with a good excuse is usually within the realm of the acceptable. How will I know how my staff view me?

  • People of lower social classes are also relegated to low-paying jobs that only serve to perpetuate their condition;
  • New Western cities began to arise;
  • Urban economies shifted from a base dominated by manufacturing to one increasingly reliant on providing services;
  • CBC the English network and Radio Canada the French network are the best sources of information on Canadian culture and current issues;
  • It also signals a real engagement between speakers.

Canada is a place where innovation and hard work are well-regarded qualities at work and elsewhere. Canada, as many other industrialized countries, is seeing a growing trend towards credentialism.

Thus, young and experienced managers may possess 2 or 3 university degrees, and some see the necessity to retrain in order to stay competitive and current with the job market needs and increase their chances at a job. Similarly, newcomers to Canada have better chances of being successful in the market if they have suitable credentials.

Personal charisma, diplomacy and tact as well cultural sensitivity are quite crucial for the success of a manager in facing and adequately dealing with the challenges of a new cultural setting which may have different work ethic and codes for behaviour. If the issue is a contentious one, some people may voice their opinions, and others may not since they may think that voicing their objections may threaten their job security.

  • Madam is frequently used sarcastically and disrespectfully and Madame is associated with the managers of brothels!
  • In 1977—78, 53 per cent of houses on reserves had minimum water service but within 20 years this had improved to 98 per cent.

Canadian directedness and assertiveness must be used strategically in difficult cases. A manager is expected to deal with and handle conflict in a constructive manner to minimize disruptions to normal activities the office. As persons in a position of leadership, they must lead by example. They are expected to meet deadlines and observe procedures and rules of the office. Academic and professional skills give some indication of background but experience is also highly valued and ultimately you will be judged by your performance and ability to get the job done.

Age, social status and connections are not typically given a lot of weight; however, their importance should not be underestimated. Teamwork is often considered an ideal form of working. It is important to show confidence as well as humility and good listening skills. Canadians tend to appreciate approachability and problem-solving abilities over authoritarian styles of management. The same would apply for a non-local manager, although fair degree of adaptation to the Canadian environment would be expected since most foreigners are not distinguished from immigrants.

Cultural Information - Hierarchy and Decision-making Question: In the workplace, how are decisions taken and by whom? Is it acceptable to go to my immediate supervisor for answers or feedback?

This does not mean that decision can go unchallenged, and for the most part, it is at this point that managers may take steps to include other voices. Ideas for decisions may come from subordinates as well from management.

This can happen in a meeting, a consultation, or a survey. Many places reward and encourage participation and initiative, which may include asking clarifying questions, or offering an alternative to an idea. Younger employees expect to be mentored and guided to grow professionally.

They also expect to be given space to make contributions and express innovative ideas, although, as indicated above, the opportunities may be limited. NGOs make more efforts to flatten the hierarchical structures and strive for working from a consensus-building point of view.

This type of situation is more desired than actualized. Canadians in general believe that authority can be challenged, and they raise questions when the situation is propitious. Decisions tend to be made by managers and there would be a direct correlation between the seriousness of the matter and the level of authority at which a decision would be made or resolution sought. Consensus is considered desirable but not imperative.