Essays academic service

A quest of sport psychologists for developing successful programs for athletes

It was expected that these results would allow to prioritize the knowledge that contributes to the development of processes leading to coaching expertise in futsal.

Available study results in basketball using similar methods identified that coaches of lower education levels novice and intermediate considered the technical factors and the coordination factors to be more important, while more experienced coaches elite considered tactical and physical conditioning factors more significant Leite et al.

Unlike the results obtained by Leite et al. The development of fundamental technical items, both defensive and offensive, at the first stages of development can be fundamental in coordinative training and in taking advantage of critical learning periods for basic sports techniques Leite et al.

The absence of differences between groups found in this study regarding technical items can be sustained by recent tendencies in approaching and teaching futsal. Sanz and Guerrero 2005 value more the adaptation to the context and unpredictability created for the adversaries than the gesture itself.

Therefore, the technical implementation needs to be precise in order to be efficient, but it must also include mental perception - analysis - decision and motor execution. In fact, teaching futsal techniques should be done using global resources, favouring the improvement of the skills needed in the game development Turner and Martinek, 1995. Similarly, we found no differences between groups with regard to physical and psychological factors.

These results do not confirm previous findings Leite et al. These authors identified that more experienced coaches dedicated more time to conditioning strength, speed or endurance.

On the other hand, they also concluded that less experienced coaches, usually involved in the initial stages of athletic development Mesquita et al. Given the fact that futsal is a team sport, where collaboration and opposition occur in a continuous interaction, a great variability of unpredictable situations is created, with an alternation between offense and defence, which requires different physical and psychological behaviour from the athletes.

Training should not only produce physiological response to each game situation, but must also develop a behaviour that can be transferred to competition, integrating all the qualities and factors that improve the capacity to play Sanz and Guerrero, 2005. Based on the assumption that the player is undergoing a process of continuous adaptation, the coach must provide him with learning conditions that maximize all of his resources.

Regarding tactical factors, significant differences were identified between novice and elite coaches in the small-sided games and inferiority games, with a clear preference of the elite group coaches for this type of exercises. The use of small-sided games and inferiority games should be regarded as a simplification of the real game less players, adapted spaces. This is a way of improving technique and tactics, as a quest of sport psychologists for developing successful programs for athletes as increasing physiological and psychological capacities of players, since the intensity of the exercise can be manipulated, with implications at the level of decision-making and of the visual patterns Vaeyens et al.

Despite the crucial role of small-sided games in the coaching process, confirmed by the results of this study and well documented in recent scientific literature Hill-Haas et al.

Usually, defensive superiority games, such as 1vs2 or 2vs3, are complex game-like situations, which are related with the development of team defensive strategies and therefore, more specific to higher levels of competition Leite et al. For these reasons, it is not difficult to understand the lower results obtained in this item, especially those corresponding to novice and intermediate coaches.

Under the current methodology, futsal coaches seem to use more often drills that demand and highlight game intelligence perception — analysis — decision Sanz and Guerrero, 2005. Consequently, the foundations of this model suggest that in early stages players should be confronted with tactical problems, helping them to develop their comprehension of the game and leading them to understand the need to optimize their skills in a game environment Turner and Martinek, 1995.

The results of this study did not confirm the conclusions of Leite et al. Futsal coaches, independently of their level of training and experience, attribute great importance to all sports performance factors.

It can be assumed that the technical qualities, the tactical knowledge, the physical or psychological capacities are related and conditioned by each other. With regard to training contents Table 2significant differences were observed between coach groups in two components: These differences can be explained by the competitive level of the teams who the coaches were working with.

Moreover, since the final score is almost the main indicator of success at this level, it is understandable that experienced coaches highly rank those drill items Leite et al. It is obvious that most coaches, independently of the level of training, consider decision-making to be more important and enjoyment to be less important. The greater importance attributed by the coaches in general to the decision-making component of the exercises as a fundamental component of game intelligence perception — analysis — decisionassociated to the significant greater use of small-sided games by the elite coaches group Hill-Haas et al.

According to Abernethy et al. Selecting drills where game-like situations are more frequent, where cooperation and opposition occur in a dynamic interaction, stimulating the ability to execute skills at the right moment and encouraging tactical awareness, expressed by the constant need to make proper decisions, can benefit the development of the tools needed to achieve a higher level of performance Leite et al.

However, teaching players to make good and quick decisions is not an easy task Turner and Martinek, 1995. What this study confirms is that, according to the importance attributed by experienced coaches, it is crucial for athletes to anticipate the stimulus Leite et al. For many years teaching and training in individual and team sports were based on the repetition of stereotyped movements. The partial progress technical, tactical, physical made by the a quest of sport psychologists for developing successful programs for athletes in analytical tasks seems to have little impact and transferability to the competition Sanz and Guerrero, 2005.

In this context, all the attention is focused on game situations, providing an important space for decision making which subsequently or simultaneously, leads to the execution of the necessary technical and tactical elements within a game context Turner and Martinek, 1995.

In the context of training, it is effectively essential to use the formal match as a resource for the development of an adequate conduct in competition Sanz and Guerrero, 2005.

According to these authors, in the context of high performance, the formal match, with or without adaptations to its structure or rules, must occupy a large part of the training sessions because it fulfils several functions of specific preparation for games of formal competition.

The results of this study reveal that, theoretically, less experienced coaches possess appropriate knowledge to lead and develop proper a quest of sport psychologists for developing successful programs for athletes development of the young futsal players, a starting hypothesis of this work. It appears that the coach education process, which includes specific training courses, and specially the experience acquired from participation in sports events either as an athlete or as a coach, result in homogeneous training concepts, in the integration of the factors responsible for sports performance.

Nevertheless, the lack of training courses with supervised field drills guided by experienced coaches Mesquita et al. Thus, it would be interesting to extend this work through comparison of coaches with different levels of training and experience under real practical situations, seeking to verify the correspondence between the theoretical importance given to sports performance factors and their practical implementation in conducting the training.

Other potential research lines are the evaluation of the influence of the methodologies used in football training on the conception of the futsal coaches or the influence of new technologies, f. Acknowledgments The authors thank the collaboration and the support of Dr.

Jorge Braz, futsal national team coach, especially for facilitating the contact with the coaches participating in this study. References Abraham A, Collins D. Declarative and procedural knowledge assessment in novice and intermediate coaches. Transfer of pattern recall skills may contribute to the development of sport expertise.

Long term athlete development: Influence of sport type and interdependence on the developmental experiences of youth male athletes. Eur J Sports Sci.

A quest of sport psychologists for developing successful programs for athletes

The influence of the family in the development of talent in sport. From play to practice: Starkes J, Ericsson KA, editors. Expert performance in sports: Human Kinetics; Champaign, IL: An integrative definition of coaching effectiveness and expertise.

Int J Sports Sci Coaching. Coach education and continuing professional development: Physiological responses and time-motion characteristics of various small-sided soccer games in youth players.

Jowett S, Wylleman P. Interpersonal relationships in sport and exercise: Paths to expertise in Portuguese national team athletes. J Sports Sci Med. Assessing the importance given by basketball coaches to training contents.

J Appl Sport Psychology. Memmert D, Roth K. The effects of non-specific and specific concepts on tactical creativity in team ball sports.

Medal Quest: Can you guide a promising young athlete to championship success?

Formal, nonformal and informal coach learning: Rhind D, Jowett S. Initial evidence for the criterion-related and structural validity of the long versions of the Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire. Investigating the assumptions of pedagogy. J Teach Phy Education.

  • Coach education and continuing professional development;
  • Unlike the results obtained by Leite et al;
  • Assessing the importance given by basketball coaches to training contents;
  • Unlike the results obtained by Leite et al.

Sanz A, Guerrero A. From traditional to modern training. Smith M, Cushion C. An investigation of the in-game behaviours of professional, top-level youth soccer coaches. Coaching for long-term athlete development: The National Coaching Foundation, editor. Turner A, Martinek T.

Skill and tactical development during a sport education season. Res Q Exercise Sport. Decision-making skill and visual search behaviour in soccer: Practical implications for training and coaching. J Sports Sci Med Suppl. Developmental activities that lead to drop out and investment in sport.

Phys Educ Sport Pedagog.