Essays academic service


A response critique of a marriage agreement

History[ edit ] Sylvia Pankhurst 1882 — 1960British feminist, refused to marry her son's father, creating public scandal. In 380 BC, Plato criticised marriage in the Republic. He stated that the idea of marriage was a "natural enemy" of the "commonwealth," aiming for its own higher unity. Examples include the early Catholic Church 's efforts to eliminate concubinage and temporary marriagethe Protestant acceptance of divorceand the abolition of laws against inter-faith and inter-race marriages in the western countries.

His well-documented relationship with Regine Olsen is a subject of study in existentialismas he called off their engagement despite mutual love.

Kierkegaard seems to have loved Regine but was unable to reconcile the prospect of marriage with his vocation as a writer and his passionate and introspective Christianity.

I must be alone a great deal. What I accomplished was only the result of being alone. Brian Sawyer says "Marriage, understood existentially, proposes to join two free selves into one heading, thus denying the freedom, the complete foundation, of each self.

Just Marriage

Some contemporary critics of marriage question why governments in Western countries continue to support marriage, when it has such a high failure rate. Anthropologist Lionel Tiger wrote: If nearly half of anything else ended so disastrously, the government would surely ban it immediately. Yet the most intimate of disasters. In response to the passage of California Proposition 22 and the current controversy regarding same-sex unions in the United Statesa group of people have banded together to boycott marriage until all people can legally marry.

The argument is that since marriage is not an inclusive institution of society, the members of the boycott refuse to support the institution as it exists. In the United Statesconservative and religious commentators are highly critical of this trend.

  • This is especially the case as marriage rates are quite low in many Western countries, and the state has been criticized for ingoing other living arrangements that are not sexual relations; and there have been increased objections to legal concepts such as consummation or adultery that critics argue do not belong in modern law;
  • The understanding of marriage as a contract does not by itself generate the reforms necessary to alter family and workplace structures, welfare, and social services in ways necessary to give both men and women the opportunity to engage in both public and caregiving work;
  • Elizabeth Brake writes that ""privacy" protects unequal divisions of domestic labor, domestic violence, and exclusion of health coverage for abortion and contraception;
  • For instance, in Yemen marriage regulations state that a wife must obey her husband and must not leave home without his permission.

They are also a response critique of a marriage agreement critical of present-day marriage law and the ease of divorce. Clare Chambers points to the sexist traditions surrounding marriage and weddings; she writes: The history of marriage in relation to women makes it an institution that some critics argue cannot and should not be accepted in the 21st century; to do so would mean to trivialize the abuses it was responsible for.

Some critics argue that it is impossible to dissociate marriage from its past. Clare Chambers argues that: Its status as a tradition ties its current meaning to its past". A documentary in Ireland presented the story of elderly women who described their experiences with repeated acts of rape in marriage and the children born from these rapes,[ when? Marital rape in Ireland was made illegal in 1990, and divorce was legalized in 1996. See dowry death The United Nations General Assembly defines "violence against women" as "any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physicalsexual or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of libertywhether occurring in public or in private life.

Common concerns raised today focus on the health and general well-being of women, who, in parts of the world, have virtually no protection in law or in practice, against domestic violence within marriage. It is also nearly impossible for women there to get out of abusive relationships.

For instance, Yemeni marriage regulations state that a wife must obey her husband and must not leave home without his permission. The criminal code states that there is no crime if an act is committed while exercising a legal right. Examples of legal rights include: They argue that marriage reinforces the traditional paradigm of male-female interaction: According to Sheila Jeffreys "the traditional elements of marriage have not completely disappeared in western societies, even in the case of employed, highly educated and well paid professional women".

Even in Western countries, married women "feel they have no choice but to stay and endure and may be 'loving to survive". The men decide when and where to have sex, and wives have no power to stop unwanted sex. In certain countries marital rape is legal, and even where it is illegal it is infrequently reported or prosecuted.

Therefore, marriage leads to a situation which allows not only forced sex, but also forced pregnancyand in some of these countries pregnancy and childbirth remain dangerous because of lack of adequate medical care. The effects of sexual violence inside marriage are exacerbated by the practice of child marriage ; in 2013 an 8-years-old Yemeni girl died from internal bleeding after she was raped by her 40-year-old new husband.

Lack of economic opportunity means that wives have no choice but to "allow sexual access to their bodies in return for subsistence". In many parts of the world it is socially expected for the bride to be a virgin; if the husband has sex with his wife after marriage and she does not bleed it is possible for a woman to not bleed when she has sex for the first time [36]this can end in extreme violence, including an honor killing.

  • That ideal has deep cultural resonance, and contractualism unnecessarily concedes this ground to conservatives;
  • Contract in lieu of marriage rests upon a notion of quid pro quo, in which each party offers something and agrees on the terms of any exchange as a rational bargainer;
  • It has, as the equal status view argues, an interest in promoting equality of husband and wife, both as spouses and as citizens, and in securing what Martha Nussbaum calls the social bases of liberty and self-respect for all family members;
  • Because benefits such as health insurance may depend on full-time work, and because the pay scale is often higher for full-time work, one partner may have to work full-time.

Elizabeth Brake writes that ""privacy" protects unequal divisions of domestic labor, domestic violence, and exclusion of health coverage for abortion and contraception. Julie Bindel writes that: For instance, in Yemen marriage regulations state that a wife must obey her husband and must not leave home without his permission.

The statutes governing marriage are drafted by the state, and not by the couples who marry under those laws. The laws may, at any time, be changed by the state without the consent or even knowledge of the married people.

The terms derived from the principles of institutionalized marriage represent the interests of the governments. Legal marriage thus enlists state support for conditions conducive to murder and mayhem.

Criticism of marriage

Criticism of cultural attitudes relating to marriage[ edit ] Some commentators[ who? They also criticize the romanticized image that marriage is given in films and romance novels.

  • Paid parental leave for both men and women would create an incentive for men to participate in child care, particularly if a father could not transfer his leave time to someone else but had to use it or forego the benefit;
  • Marriage and Liberty Liberty, the first foundational value of a liberal polity, is central to the question of who is allowed to marry;
  • And by the last quarter of the 20th century only one-fourth of U;
  • Benefits must be extended to all workers, not just those who meet the ideal worker model and basic health benefits should not be tied to employment status.

Black families have consistently been portrayed as pathological and criminal in academic research and social policy based on marriage rates, most famously in the Moynihan Report.

Sexuality and the law[ edit ] Further information: Sexual ethicsMarital rapeFornicationand Premarital sex Historically, in many cultures marriage has been used to regulate sexuality, rather than consent regulating it.

  1. In 2014, Amnesty International's Secretary General stated that "It is unbelievable that in the twenty-first century some countries are condoning child marriage and marital rape while others are outlawing abortion, sex outside marriage and same-sex sexual activity — even punishable by death.
  2. They argue that marriage reinforces the traditional paradigm of male-female interaction.
  3. The workday and workweek were based on the assumption that someone else was cleaning, cooking, and caring for family members. But it would also open up marriage so that both women and men, regardless of race, class, or sexual orientation, can, as equals, assume the responsibilities and reap the rewards of family life.

That is, non-marital sex was banned regardless of consent, while marital sex was an enforceable obligation. From the mid-20th century onward, changing social norms have led to, among other things, the decriminalization of consensual non-marital sex and the criminalization of marital rape. These changes are not universal around the world, and in many countries they have not occurred.

One of the concerns about marriage is that it may contradict the notion of sexual self-determination, due to cultural, religious, and in many countries also legal norms. For instance, sex outside marriage is still punishable by death in some jurisdictions.

In 2014, Amnesty International's Secretary General stated that "It is unbelievable that in the twenty-first century some countries are condoning child marriage and marital rape while others are outlawing abortion, sex outside marriage and same-sex sexual activity — even punishable by death. This is especially the case as marriage rates are quite low in many Western countries, and the state has been criticized for ingoing other living arrangements that are a response critique of a marriage agreement sexual relations; and there have been increased objections to legal concepts such as consummation or adultery that critics argue do not belong in modern law.

Sheila Cronan claimed that the freedom for women "cannot be won without the abolition of marriage.