Essays academic service


America during the industrial revolution in the eighteenth century

Still, it enabled ordinary to enjoy a standard of living far better than that of their forebears. Traditional agrarian societies had generally been more stable and progressed at a much slower rate before the advent of the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy. In countries affected directly by it, the Industrial Revolution dramatically altered social relations, creating a modern, urban society with a large middle class.

In most cases, the GDP has increased rapidly in those capitalist countries that follow a track of industrial development, in a sense recapitulating the Industrial Revolution. Historical background The industrial revolution started in the United Kingdom in the early seventeenth century. The Act of Union uniting England and Scotland ushered in a sustained period of internal peace and an internal free market without internal trade barriers.

Britain had a reliable and fast developing banking sector, a straight forward legal framework for setting up joint stock companies, a modern legal framework and system to enforce the rule of law, a developing transportation system, In the latter half of the 1700s the manual labor based economy of the Kingdom of Great Britain began to be replaced by one dominated by industry and the manufacture of machinery.

It started with the mechanization of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal. Once started, it spread. Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals, improved roads and railways. The introduction of steam power fueled primarily by coal and powered machinery mainly in textile manufacturing underpinned the dramatic increases in production capacity.

The effects spread throughout Western Europe and North America during the nineteenth century, eventually affecting most of the world.

  • Erie Canal at Little Falls, NY, circa 1880-1897 After the western steamboat was developed, around 1814, by Henry Shreve and Daniel French, it finally allowed for large cargo loads to be transported upstream even in shallow water, which helped spur industrialization in the West, according to Morris;
  • To capitalize upon these advances, it took a class of entrepreneurs , of which the most famous is Richard Arkwright;
  • Railroad networks in the U;
  • Oxford University Press, 1995;
  • The first is referred to today as potting and stamping, but this was superseded by Henry Cort's puddling process;
  • Skilled workers were hard to replace, and these were the first groups to successfully advance their conditions through this kind of bargaining.

The impact of this change on society was enormous. History of the name The term "Industrial Revolution" applied to technological change was common in the 1830s. Friedrich Engelsin The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844, spoke of "an industrial revolution, a revolution which at the same time changed the whole of civil society.

The idea of a new social order based on major industrial change was clear in Southey and Owen, between 1811 and 1818, and was implicit as early as Blake in the early 1790s and Wordsworth at the turn of the century. Credit for popularizing the term may be given to Arnold Toynbee, whose lectures given in 1881 gave a detailed account of the process. Innovations The commencement of the Industrial Revolution is closely linked to a small number of innovations, made in the second half of the eighteenth century: Textiles— Cotton spinning using Richard Arkwright's water frame.

This was patented in 1769 and so came out of patent in 1783. The end of the patent was rapidly followed by the erection of many cotton mills. Similar technology was subsequently applied to spinning worsted yarn for various textiles and flax for linen. Steam power—The improved steam engineinvented by James Wattwas initially used mainly for pumping out minesbut from the 1780s, was applied to power machines.

  • Foreign periodicals, such as the Annales des Mines, published accounts of travels made by French engineers who observed British methods on study tours;
  • The introduction of hydroelectric power generation in the Alps enabled the rapid industrialization of coal-deprived northern Italy , beginning in the 1890s;
  • On the day the Manchester-to-Liverpool railroad was opened to the public, a member of Parliament and a supporter of the railway was accidently killed by the Rocket.

This enabled rapid development of efficient semi-automated factories on a previously unimaginable scale in places where waterpower was not available. Iron founding—In the Iron industry, coke was finally applied to all stages of iron smelting, replacing charcoal. This had been achieved much earlier for lead and copper as well as for producing pig iron in a blast furnace, but the second stage in the production of bar iron depended on the use of potting and stamping for which a patent expired in 1786 or puddling patented by Henry Cort in 1783 and 1784.

These represent three "leading sectors," in which there were key innovations, permitting the economic take off by which the Industrial Revolution is usually defined. This is not to belittle many other inventions, particularly in the textile industry. Without some earlier ones, such as spinning jenny and flying shuttle, in the textile industry, and the smelting of pig iron with coke, these achievements might have been impossible.

Later inventions such as the power loom and Richard Trevithick's high pressure steam engine were also important in the growing industrialization of Britain.

  • He created the cotton mill which brought the production processes together in a factory, and he developed the use of power—first horse power and then water power—which made cotton manufacture a mechanized industry;
  • There was a supply and demand now and people were generally earning more money because there were more jobs, although there were people who earned little money and were poor;
  • Among possible explanations, at least two primary different types have been offered;
  • These were operated by the flames, which contained carbon monoxide , playing on the ore and reducing the oxide to metal;
  • He saw the industrialization process as the logical dialectical progression of feudal economic modes, necessary for the full development of capitalism, which he saw as in itself a necessary precursor to the development of socialism and eventually communism.

The application of steam engines to power cotton mills and ironworks enabled these to be built in places that were most convenient because other resources were available, rather than where there was water to power a mill.

In the textile sector, such mills became the model for the organization of human labor in factories, epitomized by Cottonopolis, the name given to the vast collection of cotton millsfactoriesand administration offices based in Manchester. The assembly line system greatly improved efficiency, both in this and other industries. With a series of men trained to do a single task on a product, then having it move along to the next worker, the number of finished goods also rose significantly.

Transfer of knowledge Knowledge of new innovation was spread by several means. Workers who were trained in the technique might move to another employer or might be poached. A common method was for someone to make a study tour, gathering information where he could. During the whole of the Industrial Revolution and for the century before, all European countries and America engaged in study-touring; some nations, like Sweden and Franceeven trained civil servants or technicians to undertake it as a matter of state policy.

Industrial Revolution

In other countries, notably Britain and America, this practice was carried out by individual manufacturers anxious to improve their own methods.

Study tours were common then, as now, as was the keeping of travel diaries. Records made by industrialists and technicians of the period are an incomparable source of information about their methods. A Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery ca.

History of the Industrial Revolution

The Lunar Society flourished from 1765 to 1809, and it has been said of them, "They were, if you like, the revolutionary committee of that most far reaching of all the eighteenth century revolutions, the Industrial Revolution.

For example, the London-based Royal Society of Arts published an illustrated volume of new inventions, as well as papers about them in its annual Transactions. There were publications describing technology.

Encyclopaedias such as Harris's Lexicon technicum 1704 and Dr. Abraham Rees's Cyclopaedia 1802-1819 contain much of value.

  1. The increasing availability of economical petroleum products also reduced the importance of coal and further broadened the prospective for industrialisation. Realizing the War of 1812 had ruined his import business but that a market for domestic finished cloth was emerging in America, he memorized the design of textile machines, and on his return to the United States, he set up the Boston Manufacturing Company.
  2. People used hand tools or basic machines. In the 1830s and 1840s the Chartist movement was the first large scale organized working class political movement which campaigned for political equality and social justice.
  3. He is credited with a list of inventions, but these were actually developed by people such as Thomas Highs and John Kay; Arkwright nurtured the inventors, patented the ideas, financed the initiatives, and protected the machines.

Cyclopaedia contains an enormous amount of information about the science and technology of the first half of the Industrial Revolution, very well illustrated by fine engravings. Periodical publications about manufacturing and technology began to appear in the last decade of the eighteenth century, and many regularly included notice of the latest patents. Foreign periodicals, such as the Annales des Mines, published accounts of travels made by French engineers who observed British methods on study tours.

Technological developments in Britain Textile manufacture Model of the spinning jenny in a museum in Wuppertal, Germany.

World History: Industrial revolution from 18th century

The spinning jenny was one of the innovations that started the revolution In the early eighteenth century, British textile manufacture was based on wool which was processed by individual artisans, doing the spinning and weaving on their own premises.

This system was called a cottage industry. Flax and cotton were also used for fine materials, but the processing was difficult because of the pre-processing needed, and thus goods in these materials made only a small proportion of the output.

Use america during the industrial revolution in the eighteenth century the spinning wheel and hand loom restricted the production capacity of the industry, but incremental advances increased productivity to the extent that america during the industrial revolution in the eighteenth century cotton goods became the dominant British export by the early decades of the nineteenth century.

India was displaced as the premier supplier of cotton goods. Lewis Paul patented the Roller Spinning machine and the flyer-and-bobbin system for drawing wool to a more even thickness, developed with the help of John Wyatt in Birmingham. Paul and Wyatt opened a mill in Birmingham which used their new rolling machine powered by a donkey.

In 1743, a factory was opened in Northampton with fifty spindles on each of five of Paul and Wyatt's machines. This operated until about 1764. A similar mill was built by Daniel Bourn in Leominster, but this burnt down.

Both Lewis Paul and Daniel Bourne patented carding machines in 1748. Using two sets of rollers that traveled at different speeds, it was later used in the first cotton spinning mill.

Lewis's invention was later developed and improved by Richard Arkwright in his water frame and Samuel Crompton in his spinning mule. Other inventors increased the efficiency of the individual steps of spinning carding, twisting and spinning, and rolling so that the supply of yarn increased greatly, which fed a weaving industry that was advancing with improvements to shuttles and the loom, or "frame.

To capitalize upon these advances, it took a class of entrepreneursof which the most famous is Richard Arkwright. He is credited with a list of inventions, but these were actually developed by people such as Thomas Highs and John Kay; Arkwright nurtured the inventors, patented the ideas, financed the initiatives, and protected the machines.

He created the cotton mill which brought the production processes together in a factory, and he developed the use of power—first horse power and then water power—which made cotton manufacture a mechanized industry. Before long steam power was applied to drive textile machinery. Metallurgy The Reverberatory Furnace could produce wrought iron using coal, which was mined.

Earlier finances burned charcoal, made from wood—which takes time to grow The major change in the metal industries during the era of the Industrial Revolution was the replacement of organic fuels, based on wood, with fossil fuelbased on coal.

Much of this happened somewhat before the Industrial Revolution, based on innovations by Sir Clement Clerke and others from 1678, using coal reverberatory furnaces known as cupolas. These were operated by the flames, which contained carbon monoxideplaying on the ore and reducing the oxide to metal. This has the advantage that impurities such as sulfur in the coal do not migrate into the metal. This technology was applied to lead from 1678, and to copper from 1687.

It was also applied to iron foundry work in the 1690s, but in this case the reverberatory furnace was known as an air furnace. The foundry cupola is a different and later innovation. Coalbrookdale by Night, 1801, Philipp Jakob Loutherbourg the Younger Blast furnaces light the iron making town of Coalbrookdale This was followed by Abraham Darby, who made great strides using coke to fuel his blast furnaces at Coalbrookdale in 1709.

However, the coke pig iron he made was used mostly for the production of cast iron goods such as pots and kettles.

The Industrial Revolution in America

He had the advantage over his rivals in that his pots, cast by his patented process, were thinner and cheaper than theirs. Coke pig iron was hardly used to produce bar iron in forges until the mid 1750s, when his son Abraham Darby II built Horsehay and Ketley furnaces not far from Coalbrookdale.

By then, coke pig iron was cheaper than charcoal pig iron. Bar iron for smiths to forge into consumer goods was still made in finery forges, as it long had been. However, new processes were adopted in the ensuing years. The first is referred to today as potting and stamping, but this was superseded by Henry Cort's puddling process.

From 1785, perhaps because the improved version of potting and stamping was about to come out of patent, a great expansion in the output of the British iron industry began. The new processes did not depend on the use of charcoal at all and were therefore not limited by charcoal sources. Up to that time, British iron manufacturers had used considerable amounts of imported iron to supplement native supplies.

This came principally from Sweden from the mid seventeenth century and later also from Russia towards the end of the 1720s. However, from 1785, imports decreased because of the new iron making technology, and Britain became an exporter of bar iron as well as manufactured wrought iron consumer goods. Since iron was becoming cheaper and more plentiful, it also became a major structural material following the building of the innovative Iron Bridge in 1778 by Abraham Darby III.

An improvement was made in the production of steelwhich was an expensive commodity america during the industrial revolution in the eighteenth century used only where iron would not do, such as for the cutting edge of tools and for springs. Benjamin Huntsman developed his crucible steel technique in the 1740s. The raw material for this was blister steel, made by the cementation process. The supply of cheaper iron and steel aided the development of boilers and steam engines, and eventually railways.

Improvements in machine tools allowed better working of iron and steel and further boosted the industrial growth of Britain. Mining Coal mining in Britain, particularly in South Wales started early.

Before the steam engine, pits were often shallow bell pits following a seam of coal along the surface which were abandoned as the coal was extracted. In other cases, if the geology was favorable, the coal was mined by means of an adit driven into the side of a hill.