Essays academic service


An argument against the honor code implemented at schools

Bribery Bribery is an act of giving money or gift giving that alters the behavior of the recipient.

Bribery constitutes a crime and is defined by Black's Law Dictionary as the offeringgivingreceivingor soliciting of any item of value to influence the actions of an official or other person in charge of a public or legal duty. The bribe is the gift bestowed to influence the recipient's conduct.

It may be any moneygoodright in actionpropertyprefermentprivilegeemolumentobject of value, advantage, or merely a promise or undertaking to induce or influence the action, vote, or influence of a person in an official or public capacity.

Why Honor Codes Reduce Student Cheating

Cheating Using crib notes during an examination without prior permission from the instructor is cheating Cheating can take the form of crib notes, looking over someone's shoulder during an exam, or any forbidden sharing of information between students regarding an exam or exercise. Many elaborate methods of cheating have been developed over the years.

For instance, students have been documented hiding notes in the bathroom toilet tank, in the brims of their baseball caps, up their sleeves, along their thighs or in their cleavage. Also, the storing of information in graphing calculators, pagers, cell phones, and other electronic devices has cropped up since the information revolution began. While students have long surreptitiously scanned the tests of those seated near them, some students actively try to aid those who are trying to cheat.

Methods of secretly signalling the right answer to friends are quite varied, ranging from coded sneezes or pencil tapping to high-pitched noises beyond the hearing range of most teachers. Some students have been known to use more elaborate means, such as using a system of repetitive body signals like hand movements or foot jerking to distribute answers i.

For example, a student who illicitly telegraphed answers to a friend during a test would be cheating, even though the student's own work is in no way affected.

  • Faculty issues in deterring academic dishonesty[ edit ] There are limitations to relying on the faculty to police academic dishonesty;
  • Contextual factors that individual teachers can affect often make the least difference on cheating behavior.

Another example of academic dishonesty is a dialogue between students in the same class but in two different time periods, both of which a test is scheduled for that day. If the student in the earlier time period informs the other student in the later period about the test; that is considered academic dishonesty, even though the first student has not benefited himself. One other method is taking advantage of time zones, particularly in exams administered worldwide. Those who take the exam first likely in Oceania can then post answers for those about to take the exam in a time zone behind like Europe.

Examples of this include taking more time on a take-home test than is allowed, giving a dishonest excuse when asking for a deadline extension, or falsely claiming to have submitted work. This type of academic misconduct is often considered softer than the more obvious forms of cheating, and otherwise-honest students sometimes engage in this type of dishonesty without considering themselves cheaters.

Can an honor code prevent cheating at Harvard?

It is also sometimes done by students who have failed to complete an assignment, to avoid responsibility for doing so. This includes making up citations to back up arguments or inventing quotations. Fabrication predominates in the natural sciences, where students sometimes falsify data to make experiments "work".

It includes data falsification, in which false claims are made about research performed, including selective submitting of results to exclude inconvenient data to generating bogus data.

Bibliographical references are often fabricated, especially when a certain minimum number of references is required or considered sufficient for the particular kind of paper.

This type of fabrication can range from referring to works whose titles look relevant but which the student did not read, to making up bogus titles and authors. There is also the practice of dry-labbing—which can occur in chemistry or other lab courses, in which the teacher clearly expects the experiment to yield certain results which confirm established lawsso the student starts from the results and works backward, calculating what the experimental data should be, often adding variation to the data.

In some cases, the lab report is written before the experiment is conducted—in some cases, the experiment is never carried out. In either case, the results are what the instructor expects.

Impersonation Impersonation is a form of cheating whereby a different person than the student assigned an assignment or exam completes it. Different from regular cheating,[ clarification needed ] the academic work is totally 'outsourced' to another person or organization, usually for pay.

Plagiarism Plagiarism, as defined in the Random House Compact Unabridged Dictionary, is the "use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work ". Not so in the artswhich have resisted in their long-established tradition of copying as a fundamental practice of the creative processwith plagiarism being still hugely tolerated by 21st-century artists. Sincediscussions on the subjects of student plagiarism have increased [52] with a major strand of this discussion centring on the issue of how best students can be helped to understand and avoid plagiarism.

This can be done for reasons of personal bias towards students favoritism or a particular viewpoint intellectual dishonestyfor a bribeor to improve the teacher's own perceived performance by increasing the passing rate.

It is still occasionally done for matters of ego or to procure sexual favors sexual harassment. Sabotage Sabotage is when a student or professor prevents others from completing their work. This includes cutting pages out of library books, deleting data off of classmate's computer or otherwise willfully disrupting the an argument against the honor code implemented at schools of others.

Sabotage is usually only found in highly competitivecutthroat environments, such as at extremely elite schools where class rankings are highly prized.

Poor behavior and the low level disruption of other students' learning, however, is extremely common in all educational settings. Some medical-school librarians have noted that important articles—required reading for key courses—are frequently missing from bound journals—sliced out with razor blades, scalpels, or other sharp blades.

Other journals will be marked up in crayon. Researchers have studied the correlation of cheating to personal characteristics, demographics, contextual factors, methods of deterring misconduct, even stages of moral development.

Incentives to cheat[ edit ] Some scholars contend that there are students who have a pathological urge to cheat. The writer Thomas Mallon noted that many scholars had found plagiarism in literature Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Charles Reade being two notable examples to often be perpetrated in a way similar to kleptomania a psychological disease associated with uncontrollable stealing, even when it is against the interests of the thief. For some students, there would be a dichotomy between success and honesty, and their decision is that: One study showed that students given an unexpected opportunity to cheat did not improve their grades significantly from the control group.

He contends that even if a plagiarized paper receives a relatively low grade, that grade is actually high, given how much time and effort went into the paper. In the study mentioned above in which students were allowed to bring crib sheets to a test but did not improve their scoresthe researcher concluded that the students used the crib notes as alternatives to studying, rather than as complements to studying, and thus spent less time preparing for the exam.

Schools and teachers are held accountable for the results. According to Steven Levitt and Stephen Dubner, co-authors of Freakonomics, teachers are known to "teach to the test": Levitt also states that teachers may inflate the results of tests given in their classroom.

Students involved in extra-curricular activities may be less committed to their studies, or may have more demands on their time, which interfere with their studies, creating a greater incentive to cheat. It has been found that younger students are somewhat more an argument against the honor code implemented at schools to cheat: Racenationalityand class all show little correlation with academic misconduct.

  • Bribery constitutes a crime and is defined by Black's Law Dictionary as the offering , giving , receiving , or soliciting of any item of value to influence the actions of an official or other person in charge of a public or legal duty;
  • It has been found that there is a strong correlation between extracurricular activities and cheating, especially among athletes, even those on intramural teams;
  • There is also no correlation between how religious someone is and the likelihood that that person will cheat;
  • August Learn how and when to remove this template message Cheating in academics has a host of effects on students, on teachers, on individual schools, and on the educational system itself;
  • Some colleges have much less cheating than others.

There is also no correlation between how religious someone is and the likelihood that that person will cheat. A comparison between students of different religions yielded similar results, although the study did show that Jews tend to cheat less than members of other religions. Students who speak English as a second language have been shown to commit academic dishonesty more and are more likely to be caught than native speakers, since they will often not want to rewrite sources in their own words, fearing that the meaning of the sentence will be lost through poor paraphrasing skills.

These contextual factors can be as broad as the social milieu at school to as narrow as what instructions a teacher gives before an exam.

  • A study found a correlation between how harsh or unfair a professor is perceived as and academic misconduct, since students see cheating as a way of getting back at the teacher;
  • One very important factor is time management;
  • Modified honor codes[ edit ] Recently, Donald L.

Contextual factors that individual teachers can affect often make the least difference on cheating behavior. A study found that increasing the distance between students taking an exam has little effect on academic misconduct, and that threatening students before an exam with expulsion if they cheat actually promotes cheating behavior. It has been found that students with markedly different perceptions of what the severity of the punishment for cheating were all equally likely to cheat, probably indicating that they thought that increased penalties were immaterial since their cheating would never be discovered.

Academic dishonesty

A study found a correlation between how harsh or unfair a professor is perceived as and academic misconduct, since students see cheating as a way of getting back at the teacher. Students who perceive their classroom to have high mastery goals an argument against the honor code implemented at schools less likely to engage in cheating than those who perceive their classroom to emphasize performance goals.

The most important contextual causes of academic misconduct are often out of individual teachers' hands. One very important factor is time management. One survey reported two-thirds of teachers believed that poor time management was the principal cause of cheating. It has been found that there is a strong correlation between extracurricular activities and cheating, especially among athletes, even those on intramural teams. Psychologists note that all people tend to follow the norms of their peer groupwhich would include norms about academic dishonesty.

Indeed, multiple studies show that the most decisive factor in a student's decision to cheat is his perception of his peers' relationship with academic dishonesty. For instance, larger schools, which usually have much higher cheating rates than small schools, tend to have a weaker community, being more split up into different peer groups that exert little social pressure on each other.

This depends both on how strongly someone disapproves of academic dishonesty and what types of justifications the student uses to escape a sense of guilt. For instance, students who personally do not have a moral problem with academic misconduct can cheat guilt -free.

However, while many students have been taught and have internalized that academic dishonesty is wrong, it has been shown that on average a third of students who strongly disapprove of cheating have in fact cheated. Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style.

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An argument against the honor code implemented at schools Learn how and when to remove this template message Cheating in academics has a host of effects on students, on teachers, on individual schools, and on the educational system itself. For instance, students who engage in neutralisation to justify cheating, even once, are more likely to engage in it in the future, potentially putting them on a road to a life of dishonesty. A university diploma an argument against the honor code implemented at schools an important document in the labor market.

Potential employers use a degree as a representation of a graduate's knowledge and ability. However, due to academic dishonesty, not all graduates with the same grades actually did the same work or have the same skills. Thus, when faced with the fact that they do not know which graduates are skilled and which are the "lemons" see " The Market for Lemons "employers must pay all graduates based on the quality of the average graduate.

Therefore, the more students who cheat, getting by without achieving the required skills or learning, the lower the quality of the average graduate of a school, and thus the less employers are willing to pay a new hire from that school. Because of this reason, all students, even those that do not cheat themselves, are negatively affected by academic misconduct.

Academic dishonesty also creates problems for teachers. An institution plagued by cheating scandals may become less attractive to potential donors and students and especially prospective employers. Alternatively, schools with low levels of academic dishonesty can use their reputation to attract students and employers. Ultimately, academic dishonesty undermines the academic world. It interferes with the basic mission of education, the transfer of knowledge, by allowing students to get by without having to master the knowledge.

Cheating also undermines academia when students steal ideas. Ideas are a professional author's "capital and identity", and if a person's ideas are stolen it retards the pursuit of knowledge. The case of S.

Walter Poulshocka s early-career historian whose work was found to contain wholly fabricated material, was exposed in with the American Historical Review providing a warning on the topic. Historically the job of preventing cheating has been given to the teacher.

It used to be that in college the professor acted in loco parentis and was able to regulate student behavior as a parent. Students often had no mechanism for appeal. Generally, proctors were hired to patrol exams. If a case was particularly serious, a dean or other top-level administrator might have been involved.

Against this inconsistent and paternalistic system, students at some schools rebelled and demanded to be treated as adults. Academic honor code First at the College of William and Mary inand then followed by schools like the University of Virginia in the s and Wesleyan University inthe students, with the agreement of faculty who declared themselves dedicated to ideals of democracy and human character, created honor codes. Melendez of Harvard University defined an honor code as a code of academic conduct that includes a written pledge of honesty that students sign, a student controlled judiciary that hears alleged violations, unproctored examinations, and an obligation for all students help enforce the code.

Of interest, the military academies of the US took the honor code one step further than civilian colleges, disallowing "tolerance", which means that if a cadet or midshipman is found to have failed to report or outright protected someone engaged in academic dishonesty as well as other dishonesties or stealingthat individual is to be expelled along with the perpetrator.