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An introduction and the development of color television

Identify two technological developments that paved the way for the evolution of television. Explain why electronic television prevailed over mechanical television.

Identify three important developments in the history of television since 1960. Since replacing radio as the most popular mass medium in the 1950s, television has played such an integral role in modern life that, for some, it is difficult to imagine being without it. Both reflecting and shaping cultural values, television has at times been criticized for its alleged negative influences on children and young people and at other times lauded for its ability to create a common experience for all its viewers.

Major world events such as the John F. Today, as Internet technology and satellite broadcasting change the way people watch television, the medium continues to evolve, solidifying its position as one of the most important inventions of the 20th century. The Origins of Television Inventors conceived the idea of television long before the technology to create it appeared.

Early pioneers speculated that if audio waves could be separated from the electromagnetic spectrum to create radio, so too could TV waves be separated to transmit visual images. During the late 1800s, several technological developments set the stage for television. Initially created as a scanning device known as the cathode ray oscilloscope, the CRT effectively combined the principles of the camera and electricity.

It had a fluorescent screen that emitted a visible light in the form of images when struck by a beam of electrons. The other key invention during the 1880s was the mechanical scanner system. Created by German inventor Paul Nipkow, the scanning disk was a large, flat metal disk with a series of small perforations arranged in a spiral pattern. As the disk rotated, light passed through the holes, separating pictures into pinpoints of light that could be transmitted as a series of electronic lines.

The number of scanned lines equaled the number of perforations, and each rotation of the disk produced a television frame.

An introduction and the development of color television

In 1907, Russian scientist Boris Rosing used both the CRT and the mechanical scanner system in an experimental television system. With the CRT in the receiver, he used focused electron beams to display images, transmitting crude geometrical patterns onto the television screen. The mechanical disk system was used as a camera, creating a primitive television system. Mechanical Television versus Electronic Television From the early experiments with visual transmissions, two types of television systems came into existence: He used mechanical rotating disks to scan moving images into electrical impulses, which were transmitted by cable to a screen.

Here they showed up as a low-resolution pattern of light and dark. In 1928, Baird extended his system by transmitting a signal between London and New York.

The following year, the British Broadcasting Corporation BBC adopted his mechanical system, and by 1932, Baird had developed the first commercially viable television an introduction and the development of color television and sold 10,000 sets. Despite its initial success, mechanical television had several technical limitations.

Engineers could get no more than about 240 lines of resolution, meaning images would always be slightly fuzzy most modern televisions produce images of more than 600 lines of resolution. The use of a spinning disk also limited the number of new pictures that could be seen per second, resulting in excessive flickering. The mechanical aspect of television proved to be a disadvantage that required fixing in order for the technology to move forward.

At the same time Baird and, separately, American inventor Charles Jenkins was developing the mechanical model, other inventors were working on an electronic television system based on the CRT. In 1927, Farnsworth transmitted the first all-electronic TV picture by rotating a single straight line scratched onto a square piece of painted glass by 90 degrees.

However, following the war, many of his key patents were modified by RCA and were widely applied in broadcasting to improve television picture quality. Having coexisted for several years, electronic television sets eventually began to replace mechanical systems.

With better picture quality, no noise, a more compact size, and fewer visual limitations, the electronic system was far superior to its predecessor and rapidly improving.

By 1939, the last mechanical television broadcasts in the United States had been replaced with electronic broadcasts. Silhouette images from motion picture films were broadcast to the general public on a regular basis, at a resolution of just 48 lines. Similar experimental stations ran broadcasts throughout the early 1930s.

Early receivers were a fraction of the size of modern TV sets, featuring 5- 9- or 12-inch screens. Television sales prior to World War II were disappointing—an uncertain economic climate, the threat of war, the high cost of a television receiver, and the limited number of programs on offer deterred numerous prospective buyers. Many unsold television sets were put into storage and sold after the war.

NBC was not the only commercial network to emerge in the 1930s. So that viewers would not need a separate television set for each individual network, the Federal Communications Commission FCC outlined a single technical standard. In 1941, the panel recommended a 525-line system and an image rate of 30 frames per second.

  • Major world events such as the John F;
  • Let's dig in and discover what's what in terms of tv technology the science and the technology behind nipkow's creation led to a television discovery due to high prices of the television sets, as well as a lack of color;
  • High-definition television , or HDTV, attempts to create a heightened sense of realism by providing the viewer with an almost three-dimensional experience;
  • What do you consider the most important technological development in television since the 1960s?
  • Key Takeaways Two key technological developments in the late 1800s played a vital role in the evolution of television;
  • Following the war, television rapidly replaced radio as the new mass medium.

It also recommended that all U. Analog signals were replaced by digital signals signals transmitted as binary code in 2009. Instead of commercial television sets, they began to churn out military electronic equipment. In addition, the war halted nearly all television broadcasting; many TV stations reduced their schedules to around 4 hours per week or went off the air altogether.

Color Technology Although it did not become available until the 1950s or popular until the 1960s, the technology for producing color television was proposed as early as 1904, and was demonstrated by John Logie Baird in 1928. As with his black-and-white television system, Baird adopted the mechanical method, using a Nipkow scanning disk with three spirals, one for each primary color red, green, and blue.

The Golden Age of Television Figure 9. The 1950s proved to be the golden age of television, during which the medium experienced massive growth in popularity. Mass-production advances made during World War II substantially lowered the cost of purchasing a set, making television accessible to the masses. In 1945, there were fewer than 10,000 TV sets in the United States. By 1950, this figure had soared to around 6 million, and by 1960 more than 60 million television sets had been sold World Book Encyclopedia, 2003.

Many of the early television program formats were based on network radio shows and did not take advantage of the potential offered by the new medium. For example, newscasters simply read the news as they would have during a radio broadcast, and the network relied on newsreel companies to provide footage of news events. However, during the early 1950s, television programming began to branch out from radio broadcasting, borrowing from theater to create acclaimed dramatic anthologies such as Playhouse 90 1956 and The U.

The Origins of Television

Steel Hour 1953 and producing quality news film to accompany coverage of daily events. Two new types of programs—the magazine format and the TV spectacular—played an important role in helping the networks gain control over the content of their broadcasts. Early television programs were developed and produced by a single sponsor, which gave the sponsor a large amount of control over the content of the show.

By increasing program length from the standard 15-minute radio show to 30 minutes or longer, the networks substantially increased advertising costs for program sponsors, making it prohibitive for a single sponsor. Magazine programs such as the Today show and The Tonight Show, which premiered in the early 1950s, featured multiple segments and ran for several hours.

They were also screened on a daily, rather than weekly, basis, drastically increasing advertising costs.

  • Each response should be a minimum of one paragraph;
  • As a result, the networks began to sell spot advertisements that ran for 30 or 60 seconds;
  • What do you consider the most important technological development in television since the 1960s?
  • He used mechanical rotating disks to scan moving images into electrical impulses, which were transmitted by cable to a screen.

As a result, the networks began to sell spot advertisements that ran for 30 or 60 seconds. Similarly, the television spectacular now known as the television special featured lengthy music-variety shows that were sponsored by multiple advertisers. In the mid-1950s, the networks brought back the radio quiz-show genre. Shorter than some of the new types of programs, quiz shows enabled single corporate sponsors to have their names displayed on the set throughout the show.

The popularity of the quiz-show genre plunged at the end of the decade, however, when it was discovered that most of the shows were rigged.

  • How did these changes make postwar television superior to its predecessor?
  • A patent filed in 1904 contained the earliest recorded proposal for a color television system, but the real breakthrough came several years later.

Producers provided some contestants with the answers to the questions in order to pick and choose the most likable or controversial candidates. When a slew of contestants accused the show Dotto of being fixed in 1958, the networks rapidly dropped 20 quiz shows. A New York grand jury probe and a 1959 congressional investigation effectively ended prime-time quiz shows for 40 years, until ABC revived the genre with its launch of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire in 1999 Boddy, 1990. The Rise of Cable Television Formerly known as Community Antenna Television, or CATV, cable television was originally developed in the 1940s in remote or mountainous areas, including in Arkansas, Oregon, and Pennsylvania, to enhance poor reception of regular television signals.

Cable antennas were erected on mountains or other high points, and homes connected to the towers would receive broadcast signals.

  1. By 1950, this figure had soared to around 6 million, and by 1960 more than 60 million television sets had been sold World Book Encyclopedia, 2003. Mass-production advances made during World War II substantially lowered the cost of purchasing a set, making television accessible to the masses.
  2. It served as the foundation for experiments on the transmission of visual images for several decades. Engineers could get no more than about 240 lines of resolution, meaning images would always be slightly fuzzy most modern televisions produce images of more than 600 lines of resolution.
  3. As of 2010, nearly half of American viewers are watching television in high definition, the fastest adoption of TV technology since the introduction of the VCR in the 1980s Stelter, 2010. Exercises Please respond to the following writing prompts.

In the late 1950s, cable operators began to experiment with microwave to bring signals from distant cities. Taking advantage of their ability to receive long-distance broadcast signals, operators branched out from providing an introduction and the development of color television local community service and began focusing on offering consumers more extensive programming choices.

Rural parts of Pennsylvania, which had only three channels one for each networksoon had more than double the original number of channels as operators began to import programs from independent stations in New York and Philadelphia. The wider variety of channels and clearer reception the service offered soon attracted viewers from urban areas. By 1962, nearly 800 cable systems were operational, serving 850,000 subscribers. The FCC responded by placing restrictions on the ability of cable systems to import signals from distant stations, which froze the development of cable television in major markets until the early 1970s.

When gradual deregulation began to loosen the restrictions, cable an introduction and the development of color television Service Electric launched the service that would change the face of the cable television industry— pay TV. This gave it an advantage over the microwave-distributed services, and other cable providers quickly followed suit. Further deregulation provided by the 1984 Cable Act enabled the industry to expand even further, and by the end of the 1980s, nearly 53 million households subscribed to cable television see Section 6.

In the 1990s, cable operators upgraded their systems by building higher-capacity hybrid networks of fiber-optic and coaxial cable. These broadband networks provide a multichannel television service, along with telephone, high-speed Internet, and advanced digital video services, using a single wire.

The Emergence of Digital Television Following the FCC standards set out during the early 1940s, television sets received programs via analog signals made of radio waves.

The analog signal reached TV sets through three different methods: Although the system remained in place for more than 60 years, it had several disadvantages. Analog systems were prone to static and distortion, resulting in a far poorer picture quality than films shown in movie theaters.

As television sets grew increasingly larger, the limited resolution made scan lines painfully obvious, reducing the clarity of the image. Companies around the world, most notably in Japan, began to develop technology that provided newer, better-quality television formats, and the broadcasting industry began to lobby the FCC to create a committee to study the desirability and impact of switching to digital television.

A more efficient and flexible form of broadcast technology, digital television uses signals that translate TV images and sounds into binary code, working in much the same way as a computer. This means they require much less frequency space and also provide a far higher quality picture.

The committee ultimately agreed to switch from analog to digital format in 2009, allowing a transition period in which broadcasters could send their signal on both an analog and a digital channel. Once the switch took place, many older analog TV sets were unusable without a cable or satellite service or a digital converter. These companies were eager to gain access to the analog spectrum for mobile broadband projects because this frequency band allows signals to travel greater distances and penetrate buildings more easily.

An introduction and the development of color television

High-definition televisionor HDTV, attempts to create a heightened sense of realism by providing the viewer with an almost three-dimensional experience. It has a much higher resolution than standard television systems, using around five times as many pixels per frame.

However, as with most new technology, prices dropped considerably over the next few years, making HDTV affordable for mainstream shoppers. The wide-screen format of HDTV is similar to that of movies, allowing for a more authentic film-viewing experience at home. As of 2010, nearly half of American viewers are watching television in high definition, the fastest adoption of TV technology since the introduction of the VCR in the 1980s Stelter, 2010.