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An introduction to the life of major robert anderson

Battle of Fort Sumter Maj.

Robert Anderson

He moved his small garrison from Fort Moultriewhich was indefensible, to the more modern, more defensible, Fort Sumter in the middle of Charleston Harbor. In February 1861 the Confederate States of America was formed and took charge.

Oh no, there's been an error

Jefferson Davis, the Confederate President, ordered the fort be captured. The artillery attack was commanded by Brig. Beauregardwho had been Anderson's student at West Point. The attack began April 12, 1861, and continued until Anderson, badly outnumbered and outgunned, surrendered the fort on April 14.

An introduction to the life of major robert anderson

The battle began the American Civil War. No one was killed in the battle on either side, but one Union soldier was killed and one mortally wounded during a 50-gun salute. Status as national hero[ edit ] Robert Anderson's actions in defense of Fort Sumter made him an immediate national hero. Anderson took the fort's 33-star flag with him to New York City, where he participated in a Union Square patriotic rally that was the largest public gathering in North America up to that time.

In 1862, recognition of his heroism, Anderson was elected an honorary member of the New York Society of the Cincinnati. Symbolism of the American flag[ edit ] The modern meaning of the American flagaccording to Harold Holzer in 2007 and Adam Goodheart in 2011, was forged by Anderson's stand at Fort Sumter.

Robert Anderson (Civil War)

Holzer states that New York City: To punctuate this feast of national colors, New York's graphic artists rushed out patriotic engravings and lithographs depicting avenging soldiers or gowned goddesses, bayonets upthrust, carrying "The Flag of Our Union" into future battles.

Composers dedicated songs like "Our Countries Flag" to President Lincoln, and adorned their published sheet music with colorful images of resolute soldiers gripping the national banner. Goodheart explains the flag was transformed into a sacred symbol of patriotism: Before that day, the flag had served mostly as a military ensign or a convenient marking of American territory.

But in the weeks after Major Anderson's surprising stand, it became something different. Suddenly the Stars and Stripes flew. The abstraction of the Union cause was transfigured into a physical thing: His next assignment placed him in another sensitive political position, commander of the Department of Kentucky subsequently renamed the Department of the Cumberlandin a border state that had officially declared neutrality between the warring parties.

He served in that position from May 28, 1861. Historians commonly attribute failing health as the reason for his relinquishment of command to Brig. Shermanon October 7, 1861. Speed met with Anderson and found him reluctant to implement Lincoln's wishes to distribute rifles to Unionists in Kentucky.

Anderson, Speed wrote to Lincoln on October 8, "seemed grieved that [he] had to surrender his command.

Did Robert Anderson Violate His Orders?

Anderson's grandnephew, Ambassador Larz Andersonwas highly active in the Society. General Anderson's last assignment of his military career was a brief period as commanding officer of Fort Adams in Newport, Rhode Island, in August 1863. Anderson officially retired from the Army on October 27, 1863, "for Disability resulting from Long and Faithful Service, and Wounds and Disease contracted in the Line of Duty", but continued to serve on the staff of the general commanding the Eastern Department, headquartered in New York City, from October 27, 1863 until January 22, 1869.

Later life[ edit ] Major Robert Anderson is honored with his likeness inscribed in a monument atop Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor. Lee 's surrender at Appomattox and the effective conclusion of the war, at the behest of Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, Anderson returned to Charleston in uniform.

  • There appears to be a romantic desire urging the South Carolinians to have possession of this work, which was so nobly defended by their ancestors in 1776; and the State, if she determines to act on the aggressive, will exert herself to take this fort;
  • The artillery attack was commanded by Brig;
  • Lacking clear instructions of any kind, he prudently transfered garrison from exposed Ft;
  • From this visit had come a memorandum, dated December 11, summarizing instructions given verbally;
  • The fate of the Southern Confederacy hangs by the ensign balliards of Fort Sumter.

Then, four years after lowering the 33-star flag in surrender, Major General Anderson raised it in triumph over the recaptured but badly battered Fort Sumter. In 1869, he discussed the future of the U.

He was later interred at West Point Cemetery. Anderson's brother, Charles Andersonserved as Governor of Ohio from 1865 to 1866.

  1. As the meeting dragged on into evening, he blasted Anderson.
  2. Crawford, The Genesis of the Civil War.
  3. Thomas of the 2nd cavalry a Brigadier" [of volunteers]. Beauregard , who had been Anderson's student at West Point.

A zealous Catholic and Confederate sympathizer, he briefly moved to Mexico during the reign of Emperor Maximilian in hopes of establishing a Confederate colony there. Marshall Anderson's son, Thomas M. Robert Anderson married Eliza Bayard Clinch 1828—1905 with whom he had five children: Marie 1849—1925Sophie 1852—1934Eliza, Robert Jr.

Allegedly, the doctor who delivered Ethel Anderson Clift told her when she was an adult that she was the illegitimate daughter of Maria Anderson and Woodbury Blair, but no documentation exists to verify the relationship.

Virtually all sources that advance this theory reference Ethel's own statements or Clift's biographies.