Essays academic service


Marijuanas medical purposes are not limited to the prevention of glaucoma

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Controversies surrounding legal, ethical, and societal implications associated with use; safe administration, packaging, and dispensing; adverse health consequences and deaths attributed to marijuana intoxication; and therapeutic indications based on limited clinical data represent some of the complexities associated with this treatment.

Marijuana is currently recognized by the U.

  • The United States Pharmacopoeia and the FDA have considered the complexities of regulating this plant-based therapy, including the numerous compounds and complex interactions between substances in this product, and how it might fit into the current regulatory framework of drugs in United States;
  • These findings suggest we need longer-term studies of the effects of chronic marijuana use on vision;
  • Fifteen of the 18 included trials demonstrated a significant analgesic effect of cannabinoids compared with placebo;
  • Last reviewed on October 29, 2017;
  • In crossover trials in which patients received cannabis-based products and conventional antiemetics, patients preferred the cannabis-based medicines.

The Food and Drug Administration FDA has considered how it might support the scientific rigor of medicinal cannabis claims, and the review of public data regarding safety and abuse potential is ongoing. Evidence suggesting its use more than 5,000 years ago in what is now Romania has been described extensively. Federal restriction of cannabis use and cannabis sale first occurred in 1937 with the passage of the Marihuana Tax Act.

In 1996, California became the first state to permit legal access to and use of botanical cannabis for medicinal purposes under physician supervision with the enactment of the Compassionate Use Act.

As previously stated, as of January 1, 2017, 28 states as well as Washington, D. The United States Pharmacopoeia and the FDA have considered the complexities of regulating this plant-based therapy, including the numerous compounds and complex interactions between substances in this product, and how it might fit into the current regulatory framework of drugs in United States.

Should You Be Smoking Marijuana To Treat Your Glaucoma?

Like some herbal preparations or supplements, however, medicinal cannabis may similarly pose health risks associated with its use, including psychoactive, intoxicating, and impairing effects, which have not been completely elucidated through clinical trials. Proponents argue that there is evidence to support botanical medicinal cannabis in the treatment of a variety of conditions, particularly when symptoms are refractory to other therapies; that beneficial cannabinoids exist, as evidenced by single-entity agents derived from cannabis containing the compounds THC and cannabidiol CBD ; that cannabis is relatively safe, with few deaths reported from use; that therapy is self-titratable by the patient; and that therapy is relatively inexpensive compared with pharmaceutical agents.

Deficiencies in eCB signaling could be also involved in the pathogenesis of depression. The eCB system consists of receptors, endogenous ligands, and ligand metabolic enzymes. A variety of physiological processes occur when cannabinoid receptors are stimulated.

Cannabinoid receptor type 1 CB1 is the most abundant G-protein—coupled receptor. It is expressed in the central nervous system, with particularly dense expression in ranked in order: CB1 is also expressed in non-neuronal cells, such as adipocytes and hepatocytes, connective and musculoskeletal tissues, and the gonads.

CB2 is principally associated with cells governing immune function, although it may also be expressed in the central nervous system.

AEA and 2-AG are released upon demand from cell membrane phospholipid precursors. Entourage compounds include N-palmitylethanolamide PEAN-oleoylethanolamide SEAand cis-9-octadecenoamide OEA or oleamide and may represent a novel route for molecular regulation of endogenous cannabinoid activity.

G-protein—coupled receptors provide noncompetitive inhibition at mu and delta opioid receptors as well as norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin. Ligand-gated ion channels create allosteric antagonism at serotonin and nicotinic receptors, and enhance activation of glycine receptors. It is now accepted that other phytocannabinoids with weak or no psychoactivity have promise as therapeutic agents in humans.

The cannabinoid that has sparked the most interest as a nonpsychoactive component is CBD. Several activities give CBD a high potential for therapeutic use, including antiepileptic, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects.

And, some states have passed legislation to allow for the use of majority CBD preparations of cannabis for certain pathological conditions, despite lack of standardization of CBD content and optimal route of administration for effect. Finally, preliminary clinical trials suggest that high-dose oral CBD 150—600 mg per day may exert a therapeutic effect for epilepsy, insomnia, and social anxiety disorder. Nonetheless, such doses of CBD have also been shown to cause sedation. The method of administration can impact the onset, intensity, and duration of psychoactive effects; effects on organ systems; and the addictive potential and negative consequences associated with use.

The net effect is lower drug marijuanas medical purposes are not limited to the prevention of glaucoma due to adsorption of compounds of interest to multiple surfaces. In a randomized controlled trial conducted by Huestis and colleagues, THC was detected in plasma immediately after the first inhalation of marijuana smoke, attesting to the efficient absorption of THC from the lungs.

Cannabinoids and glaucoma

THC levels rose rapidly and peaked prior to the end of smoking. Vaporization provides effects similar to smoking marijuanas medical purposes are not limited to the prevention of glaucoma reducing exposure to the byproducts of combustion and possible carcinogens and decreasing adverse respiratory syndromes. THC is highly lipophilic, distributing rapidly to highly perfused tissues and later to fat. After oral THC, the onset of clinical effects was slower and lasted longer, but effects occurred at much lower plasma concentrations than they did after the other two methods of administration.

The pharmacokinetics of THC vary as a function of its route of administration. Inhalation of THC causes a maximum plasma concentration within minutes and psychotropic effects within seconds to a few minutes.

These effects reach their maximum after 15 to 30 minutes and taper off within two to three hours. Following oral ingestion, psychotropic effects manifest within 30 to 90 minutes, reach their maximum effect after two to three hours, and last for about four to 12 hours, depending on the dose.

A survey using data from Qualtrics and Facebook showed that individuals in states with medical cannabis laws had a significantly higher likelihood of ever having used the substance with a history of vaporizing marijuana odds ratio [OR], 2. Longer duration of medical cannabis status and higher dispensary density were also significantly associated with use of vaporized and edible forms of marijuana. Medical cannabis laws are related to state-level patterns of utilization of alternative methods of cannabis administration.

In the randomized trials, the median duration of cannabinoid exposure was two weeks, with a range between eight hours and 12 months. Of patients assigned to active treatment in these trials, a total of 4,779 adverse effects were reported; 96. The most common serious adverse effects included relapsing MS 9. No significant differences in the rates of serious adverse events between individuals receiving medical cannabis and controls were identified relative risk, 1. The most commonly reported non-serious adverse event was dizziness, with an occurrence rate of 15.

For chronic pain, the analgesic effect remains unclear. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted examining cannabinoids in the treatment of chronic noncancer pain, including smoked cannabis, oromucosal extracts of cannabis-based medicine, nabilone, dronabinol, and a novel THC analogue.

Fifteen of the 18 included trials demonstrated a significant analgesic effect of cannabinoids compared with placebo. Cannabinoid use was generally well tolerated; adverse effects most commonly reported were mild to moderate in severity. Overall, evidence suggests that cannabinoids are safe and moderately effective in neuropathic pain with preliminary evidence of efficacy in fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis.

Only recently has the efficacy and safety of cannabis-based medicines in managing nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy been evaluated. In a review of 23 randomized, controlled trials, patients who received cannabis-based products experienced less nausea and vomiting than subjects who received placebo. In crossover trials in which patients received cannabis-based products and conventional antiemetics, patients preferred the cannabis-based medicines.

Cannabis-based medications may be useful for treating chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting that responds poorly to conventional antiemetics. However, the trials produced low to moderate quality evidence and reflected chemotherapy agents and antiemetics that were available in the 1980s and 1990s.

With regard to the management of neurological disorders, including epilepsy and MS, a Cochrane review of four clinical trials that included 48 epileptic patients using CBD as an adjunct treatment to other antiepileptic medications concluded that there were no serious adverse effects associated with CBD use but that no reliable conclusions on the efficacy and safety of the therapy can be drawn from marijuanas medical purposes are not limited to the prevention of glaucoma limited evidence.

Some evidence has shown that THC might be useful in treatment of anorexia and behavioral symptoms in patients with dementia. The most common adverse events reported during cannabinoid treatment in older adults were sedation-like symptoms. Table 1 contains a summary of medicinal cannabis indications by state, including select disease states and qualifying debilitating medical conditions or symptoms.

A total of 28 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and Puerto Rico now allow comprehensive public medical marijuana and cannabis programs.