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Push and pull factors puerto rico migration

For the first time, 61 percent of Puerto Ricans voted yes on the statehood box option. Puerto Rico is looking to become the 51st state of the union with the help of its resident commissioner, Pedro Pierluisi, who will be representing the island in the United States Congress. He expects to compile the results from the whistle-stop series of meetings that he and Equality in Washington Igualdad en Washington participated in at the beginning of the month, where they were joined by 150 lawmakers from both parties.

That event, which was announced during a demonstration outside the White House, and was held on the day that marked the 90th anniversary of a federal law granting U. His communication office told Florida Watchdog that Pierluisi hopes to and revisit lawmakers who support statehood, and that he plans to introduce a statehood bill in mid-May.

That bill must win congressional approval before being brought to a vote in Puerto Rico. Pierluisi meets with U. But before winning bipartisan support in the United States, Pierluisi first must face opposition in his homeland. Puerto Ricans divided Almost a year ago, after retiring from teaching, Jose Lopez decided to devote all his free time to helping Puerto Rico become an independent sovereign nation, which runs counter to results of a Nov.

Lopez is from Bayamon, near the capital of the island.

  • Passel, senior demographer, for his expertise on data use;
  • Despite having support, it will be a long and difficult road for Pierluisi;
  • Consequently, GAO produced an alternative set of revenue estimates to account for some businesses with activities in Puerto Rico potentially relocating under statehood;
  • S GAO report confirms that many of them would leave;
  • But their citizenship is limited and U;
  • According to Census Bureau researchers, the island had a net loss to the mainland of 192,000 migrants younger than 65 for the years from the 2000 census to the 2010 census Bhaskar et al, 2013.

He was born in New York, but his parents are Puerto Rican. The option on the ballot had two questions: Lopez interprets the election result differently, pointing out that the ballot questions was designed by the New Progressive Party, an organization pushing for Puerto Rico statehood.

The first question makes the point clear: The former governor played a major role during the Republican National Convention.

  1. For some revenue sources, the extent to which federal revenue would change depends on various assumptions.
  2. This would put in risk more than 80,000 jobs, plus tens of thousands more government jobs that would be at stake if the local government loses billions in tax revenues under statehood.
  3. After all, it seems that at its current economic and fiscal juncture, neither Puerto Rico nor the U. That bill must win congressional approval before being brought to a vote in Puerto Rico.
  4. According to tax policy experts at the Department of the Treasury and the Joint Committee on Taxation, changes in federal income tax requirements under statehood would likely motivate some corporations with substantial amounts of income derived from intangible assets to relocate from Puerto Rico to lower tax locations. For 2000 to 2010, the bureau estimated Puerto Rico had a net loss of 192,000 people younger than 65 Bhaskar et al, 2013.
  5. The extent to which such corporations might relocate from Puerto Rico is unknown. The island also benefits from ties to the U.

In 1898, the island, as well as the Philippines, was ceded to the United States after the Spanish-American War under the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1898. Since then it has remained under U.

In the early 20th century Puerto Rico fought for democratic rights. In 1900 the civil government was established and in 1917 Puerto Ricans became U. But their citizenship is limited and U. In 1952, the Constitution of Puerto Rico was approved, which included the holding of democratic elections. Although they are permitted to participate in primary elections, Puerto Rican Push and pull factors puerto rico migration cannot vote for president, a privilege reserved for citizens who live in the states.

Lopez told Watchdog that the United Nations determined in 1960 in its resolution 1514 XV that colonialism is a crime against humanity. Despite 30 resolutions, Puerto Rico remains the oldest colony and most populous in the world. It should be obvious now that the U. With an estimated population of almost 4 million, statehood would entitle it to eight electoral votes, six seats in the House of Representatives and two in the U. However, he lost his re-election bid in November to Alejandro Garcia Padilla, a staunch opponent of the proposal.

Congress recognized Puerto Rico as a state. Despite having support, it will be a long and difficult road for Pierluisi. Artle Four of the Constitution gives Congress to admit new states to the union by a simple majority vote in both chambers. The legislation must also be signed by the president. According to a new report published by the U. S GAO report confirms that many of them would leave.

This would put in risk more than 80,000 jobs, plus tens of thousands more government jobs that would be at stake if the local government loses billions in tax revenues under statehood. S GAO report states: According to tax policy experts at the Department of the Treasury and the Joint Committee on Taxation, changes in federal income tax requirements under statehood would likely motivate some corporations with substantial amounts of income derived from intangible assets to relocate from Puerto Rico to lower tax locations.

So not only will statehood negatively impact the Puerto Rican economy by imposing a larger-than-life fiscal burden on its people and its government, but it will also encourage capital migration, which will in turn reduce the sources of federal tax revenue from Puerto Rico — and more importantly leave potentially more than 100,000 Puerto Ricans unemployed.

Beyond economics, however, it is important to note that Puerto Ricans have rejected becoming the 51st state on each of the four occasions we have voted on the matter since 1967.

On November 2012, 1. After all, it seems that at its current economic and fiscal juncture, neither Puerto Rico nor the U.

Puerto Rican Population Declines on Island, Grows on U.S. Mainland

It is high time for the U. What GAO Found Of the 29 federal programs GAO reviewed which accounted for about 86 percent of federal program spending for states or their residents in fiscal year 2010statehood would likely affect 11 programs. For 3 other programs, while the programs themselves would likely not change under statehood, eligibility determinations for these programs could be affected indirectly by changes that could occur to benefits in other programs.

Statehood would not likely affect the 15 remaining programs. The extent to which federal spending would change for some of the programs affected by Puerto Rico statehood depends on various assumptions: The estimated ranges for the four programs, as described below, are based on Puerto Rico being treated the same as the states in either 2010 or 2011, based on the year for which GAO had the most recent data. The Medicare estimates take into account certain changes under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act occurring after 2010 that would reduce spending.

Also, the Medicare estimates depend on the estimates for Medicaid, as some individuals are eligible for both programs. If these services became available, Medicaid spending would likely increase.

All the federal revenue sources GAO reviewed—individual and corporate income taxes, employment tax, excise tax, estate and gift taxes, and customs duties—could be affected if Puerto Rico became a state.

  1. Census Bureau researchers have concluded that this method produced estimates that were too high Christenson, 2001.
  2. Most but not all were Hispanics of Puerto Rican origin.
  3. This report also discusses economic and fiscal factors under statehood that could influence changes in spending and revenues. Puerto Rico has taken recent steps to improve its fiscal position, such as reducing its government workforce and reforming its largest public employee retirement system.

For example, under statehood, Puerto Push and pull factors puerto rico migration residents would be subject to federal tax on all their income: Also, some sources of income, such as pension income, are taxed differently in Puerto Rico than in the states.

For some revenue sources, the extent to which federal revenue would change depends on various assumptions. For example, for the two largest revenue sources that would be affected substantially by statehood—individual and corporate income taxes—GAO used various assumptions to estimate a range of federal revenue.

The estimate ranges, as described below, are based on Puerto Rico being treated the same as the states in either 2009 or 2010, based on the year for which GAO had the most recent data. Most of this amount was from an unusually large amount of dividends repatriated from Puerto Rico compared to amounts repatriated in earlier years or in 2010. The low end of this range assumes that U. However, this range does not take into account any behavioral changes of businesses with activities in Puerto Rico.

For example, according to tax policy experts at the Department of the Treasury and the Joint Committee on Taxation, changes in federal income tax requirements under statehood would likely motivate some corporations with substantial amounts of income derived from intangible and therefore mobile assets to relocate from Puerto Rico to lower tax foreign locations. The extent to which such corporations might relocate from Puerto Rico is unknown. Consequently, GAO produced an alternative set of revenue estimates to account for some businesses with activities in Puerto Rico potentially relocating under statehood: The low end of this range is negative because U.

Puerto Rico faces various economic and fiscal challenges that could potentially impact changes in federal spending and revenue under statehood. For example, its economy largely has been in recession since 2006, and its levels of employment and labor force participation are relatively low, compared to those of the states.

Puerto Rico has taken recent steps to improve its fiscal position, such as reducing its government workforce and reforming its largest public employee retirement system. Changes in federal program spending and to federal tax law under statehood could lead to economic and fiscal changes of their own in Puerto Rico. That may have a cascading effect on federal spending and revenue levels. However, the precise nature of such changes is uncertain. Why GAO Did This Study Puerto Rico has access to many federal programs, and is subject to certain federal tax laws; however, for some programs and for some aspects of tax law, Puerto Rico is treated differently than the states.

MEXICAN AMERICANS AND PUERTO RICANS

GAO was asked to review potential fiscal implications for federal programs if Puerto Rico were to become a state. This report examines potential changes to selected federal programs and related spending changes, and changes to selected federal revenue sources that would be expected should Puerto Rico become a state.

This report also discusses economic and fiscal factors under statehood that could influence changes in spending and revenues. To evaluate potential changes to selected federal programs and revenue sources, GAO reviewed federal laws and regulations and interviewed federal and Puerto Rico agency officials. To view the Spanish translation of this highlights page, please see GAO-14-301.

For more information, contact Stanley J. Czerwinski at 202 512-6520 or czerwinskis gao.