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The controversial issue in basketball league in the 1940

With its recent popularity, the question has been raised as to whether newspaper coverage of the teams is pivotal to the survival of the fledgling franchises. This study sought to discover if the actual coverage of the Miami Sol and the Orlando Miracle, two now defunct WNBA teams, affected the demise of the franchises.

  1. No shouldering, holding, pushing, tripping or striking in any way the person of an opponent shall be allowed. With its recent popularity, the question has been raised as to whether newspaper coverage of the teams is pivotal to the survival of the fledgling franchises.
  2. A player cannot run with the ball, the player must throw it from the spot on which he catches it, allowance to be made for a man who catches the ball when running at good speed.
  3. Jocks, Blue State vs. And it's that simple.
  4. The most noticeable would be Yao Ming.

Our mixed method case study compared a qualitative inquiry interviews with an empirical examination of the newspaper coverage. It examined the development of coverage for the two franchises, story placement, the average number of column inches for each story, use of photographs, and story content.

It attempted to discover the viewpoints of the beat writers for the two teams at the Miami Herald and the Orlando Sentinel. The study examined whether women were depicted as sex objects through commoditization or objectification, whether gender marking was present in the stories, and whether the coverage was written from a female or male perspective.

The Miami Sol followed its sister Florida team into the league in 2000. The Miracle lasted four seasons, and compiled a 60-68 record with one playoff appearance before the franchise was transferred to the Connecticut Sun in 2003.

The Sol was in existence three years and it amassed a record of 48-48 with one playoff appearance before it was disbanded in 2003. This study will seek to discover if newspaper coverage by the two respective newspapers, the Miami Herald and the Orlando Sentinel, contributed to the short tenure of the two ill-fated WNBA teams in the state of Florida. Some experts believe that sports editors act as gatekeepers and, through their purported biased decision-making, erect barriers to coverage, adversely affecting female participation Matheson and Flatten, 1996.

Others hypothesize that hegemonic theory Gramsci, 1971; Sage, 1998or the power to sanction the power and privilege over women in sport Daddario, 1994is the basis of the discriminatory coverage exerted by sports editors. The symbiotic relationship between mass media and sport reinforces the importance and power of sport that is embedded in our cultural landscape. Graber 1997 stated that the biased process mass media utilizes to determine what the controversial issue in basketball league in the 1940 get into print is directly correlated to the reinforcement of existing cultural norms in American society.

Stories chosen for prominent coverage are selected on the basis of enforcing and subsequently intensifying the power of the media to reinforce dominant cultural values determined by the elite.

  1. This, in turn, restricts the number of ways American Indians see themselves. McMillan 2000 states this type of interview is utilized with individuals possessing insight and understanding into the problem.
  2. The interviews were conducted with the three primary actors in the professional media context.
  3. Basketball soon became popular among French and Italians. Another possible bias would occur if the coder prejudged the outcome of the research.

The purpose of the study is to examine the newspaper coverage of the two WNBA teams in light of the previously mentioned hegemonic practices of the sports editors.

We began with a qualitative study where the sports editors, beat writers, and team public relations directors were interviewed questions are presented in Appendix 1. Based on the predominant themes and issues that were revealed by the interviews, we then conducted a content analysis to examine the findings empirically. Historical analysis implies that the relationship between sport and the mass media is one of mutual interdependence and of reciprocal influence.

They often help to establish the context or frame of reference from which the reader interprets the accompanying story Miller, 1975. Numerous content analyses of photographs in newspapers have found female athletes to be under-represented. For example, Miller 1975 conducted a content analysis of the photographs in the Los Angeles Times and the Washington Post and found that males dominated the sport sections of both papers.

The ratios of photos of men to photos of women were 16: The ratio of photos of Olympic male athletes to those of Olympic female athletes was 2. Newspaper coverage of female athletes is often found in less prominent pages and sections. In summary, despite increasing opportunities and growing social awareness and acceptance for women participating in sport, research on media representation of women in sport in the U.

Often, the coverage is clouded by traditional, outdated, sexist coverage in electronic and print media. This study utilized a mixed methodology. We developed a list of questions to utilize in interviews with the sports editors and the assigned beat writers from the Orlando Sentinel and the Miami Herald. Three distinct sampling decisions were used to conduct a content analysis study Berelson, 1952.

The first decision involves selecting the titles specific newspapers. For this study, the purposive sampling technique was used. This technique involves the researcher choosing the sample based on the newspapers titles having similar characteristics, such as circulation and readership profiles.

The second sampling decision relates to the issues or dates of the titles. In this study, the dates of the newspapers to be studied coincide with the dates of the 2000 and 2001 WNBA seasons, including two weeks prior to the beginning of the games and a week after the season concluded May 1 2000- September 2 2000, and April 30, 2001 — September 2, 2001. The final sampling decision is the content to be coded from the newspapers.

For the purpose of the controversial issue in basketball league in the 1940 study, the content to be coded included the front page of the newspapers, the front page of the sports section, and the entire sports section in both newspapers.

A sample of the two WNBA franchises in Florida, the Orlando Miracle and the Miami Sol, were selected for the current study to scrutinize trends in media coverage of relatively new teams in well-established sports metropolises. These newspapers were chosen because they are the largest periodicals in the respective cities of the teams.

The 1950s Sports: Topics in the News

The Miami Herald is the most popular daily newspaper in Miami, with a daily circulation of 326,410, and a Sunday circulation of 441,564. The Orlando Sentinel is the only daily newspaper in Orlando, with a daily circulation of 256,278, and a Sunday circulation of 378,172. We first compiled an interview schedule list of questionsused to format extensive personal interviews with the sports editors and beat writers who collaborate in the decision-making process on the volume of media coverage of the Miami Sol and the Orlando Miracle.

  • Club president Mark Shapiro later declared that Wahoo "represents the heritage of the team and the ballpark;
  • This technique involves the researcher choosing the sample based on the newspapers titles having similar characteristics, such as circulation and readership profiles;
  • Every time a point was scored, the game was halted so the janitor could bring out a ladder and retrieve the ball;
  • If he holds it longer it shall go to the opponent;
  • Blackhorse was 24 when Harjo decided to refile the petition with the Patent Office in 2006.

The public relations directors of both teams, who by the nature of their job descriptions were responsible for attempting to coax additional column inches for their respective organizations out of the sports editors, were also interviewed. Qualitative research has several key characteristics that make it a valuable asset in collecting rich personal data directly from subjects.

McMillan 2000 notes several key characteristics of qualitative research: Rooted in anthropology, ethnography is a process by which the researcher seeks to discover cultural meanings from the data. The ethnographer identifies themes and patterns beyond the mere reporting of events and details, and seeks to provide an explanation of the sporting world in which we live.

Three methods of collecting data are common to ethnographic studies — participant observation, interviews, and analysis of documents McMillan, 2000.

In the study, two of these techniques were the controversial issue in basketball league in the 1940 — personal interviews and content analysis. The interviews were conducted with the three primary actors in the professional media context: The content analysis provided empirical data directly from the newspaper stories written about the Miracle and the Sol for the 2000 and 2001 seasons. To insure the validity of the interviews, a semi-structured format was selected.

The interviewer then let the interview process with all three subjects flow from the responses of the subject.

Follow-up questions were asked if the collected information warranted. The ethnographic approach provided a detailed analysis of the attitudes, perceptions, and motivations related the selection of and attempts to influence media coverage of the two teams. McMillan 2000 states this type of interview is utilized with individuals possessing insight and understanding into the problem. For the study, the key informant interview was used because the six people interviewed were experts on the respective subject areas, as detailed by their positions of employment.

An initial e-mail was sent to each of the potential interviewees. It included suggested questions, but also requested that they consider their thoughts about media coverage of the team they either worked for or covered as a member of the media.

After receiving a confirmatory response from each person with an agreement to participate in the interview, each of the subjects was telephoned. Following the interviews, data transcription occurred, and a comprehensive examination was performed to determine if thematic patterns could be found. First, an analysis of the responses from the team public relations directors depicted consistent coverage of both the Sol and the Miracle in both markets.

Both PR directors concurred that they believed their teams should receive more coverage than was allocated by the respective hometown paper. In trying to determine the value of the team in the sport landscape Is it a legitimate sporting entity, or an alternative sport offering like the X Games?

NBA is born

Both firmly believed the WNBA is a legitimate entry into professional sports and has a long-term future. Both the Sol and Miracle PR directors responded to a question about their relationships with the beat writers and sports editors in a positive manner.

In their opinions, both beat writers were genuinely interested in covering the the controversial issue in basketball league in the 1940, and were not there because they had been assigned to the beat.

They reported that their relationships with their respective sports editors were cordial and professional, but mentioned that the editors viewed the WNBA team as just another entry-level sport that should be placed in the second tier of sports coverage. The results from the content analysis of the Miami Herald and the Orlando Sentinel clearly showed that both WNBA teams received extensive coverage in June at the beginning of the season. However, the column inch count from both newspapers showed a significant drop once professional football training camps began in late July.

A highly entrenched tier system of media coverage is one phenomenon that emerged from the research. The WNBA fell into the second tier, which puts it on a parallel with college sports, minor professional sports, and entities like major league soccer, pro tennis, golf, and other events that occur periodically through the year. Related to the tier system, both editors concurred that when the month of July started and professional football training camps opened, a manifest decline in WNBA coverage occurred.

The content analysis results clearly showed that when football pre-season training camp began, the column inch count of the WNBA plummeted. One PR director noted that the 2001 league champion Los Angeles Sparks received minimal exposure in the Los Angeles Times until they were deep into the league playoffs. If the sports editor takes a personal interest in the team, the coverage increases.

If an editor was only marginally interested, the teams would receive the same coverage as a second tier fringe sport. A surprise to the researchers was that both beat writers were hired specifically to cover the WNBA teams.

These factors indicate that the sports editors were taking a professional approach to WNBA coverage and were not relegating it to the third tier of coverage for example, high schools, outdoors, bowling, or running.

The beat writers both noted that coverage of the team dropped off after the All-Star break mid-July. One writer mentioned that the sports editor sent out an e-mail that said there would be fewer team notebooks notes columnsless game advances, and shorter team stories.

Why use of Native American nicknames is an obvious affront

One writer said space would not improve for WNBA coverage under the current sports editor. Solutions to those obstacles noted by the beat writers were: The editors of both the Miami Herald and the Orlando Sentinel stated that the start of football season is a defining factor in the coverage of the WNBA.

When questioned about their space allocation policy for assigning space for second tier sports, both sports editors said that consistency in coverage was important. They tried to cover the team with a regular beat writer and allotted space for notebooks, advances, and feature stories. However, the content analysis study shows that coverage was consistent until July, but dropped systematically in both cities simultaneously.

  • The WNBA fell into the second tier, which puts it on a parallel with college sports, minor professional sports, and entities like major league soccer, pro tennis, golf, and other events that occur periodically through the year;
  • It's a simple, beautifully filmed litany of words and names to describe indigenous people, and it ends with the line, "Native Americans call themselves many things;
  • She actually won against the big legal guns of the NFL in 1999, but a federal judge ruled she was too old to be a plaintiff in a case that relied so heavily on the potential harm to young people;
  • And the end zones that are called "sacred ground" at Arrowhead Stadium in Kansas City were once the home of the Osage;
  • And I think that what I would encourage you to do and everyone else to do is just look at the history, understand where the name came from, understand that it means...

The sports editors pointed to smaller paper sections in the summer when there are fewer sports actually in season and space is limited. Both papers routinely rotated the Sol or the Miracle to page one of the sports section, but the content analysis showed that coverage in the Miami Herald was superior in its coverage of the WNBA.

A content analysis of the selected newspapers was employed to quantitatively examine the coverage of the 2000 and 2001 WNBA seasons. Berelson 1952 lists seventeen uses of content analysis, including three that frame this study: Through content analysis, it should be possible to draw inferences about how a printed medium like a newspaper treats female athletes or how the media commits itself to coverage of female subjects Vincent, 2000.

In content analysis studies, content, or as it is sometimes called, face validity, is normally relied upon. Content validity is usually established through the informed judgment of the researchers.

It is often assumed that a measure self-evidently measures what it is supposed to if the categories are rigidly defined and the coding has a high degree of reliability Vincent, 2000. The units of analysis in this study for all print and photograph space were square inches and simple number counts.

This study utilized one primary coder and one assistant who scanned the newspapers during each day of the two WNBA seasons for both teams. Therefore, there is a risk that the coders introduced bias because the task of imputing documents into the categories of analysis is largely a subjective process. Another possible bias would occur if the coder prejudged the outcome of the research.