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The development of different kinds of theaters in greece

The Greeks produced complex dramas, with developed characters, themes and plots that are still present in drama today. With its elaborate masks and costumes and rigidly formalized music, Greek drama has been described as a cross between Japanese Noh theater and grand opera. Explaining why comedies exist is easy: Understanding why tragedies exist is more difficult to grasp.

Aristotle explains that at least part of the attraction is the purging effect of releasing emotion while watching a play. Greek dramas never had more than three actors on stage at one time.

Action in the plays was held to a minimum and violence occurred only offstage. Music was supplied by a flutist who led the chorus.

The Greeks were one of the first people to use advertising. Announcers shouted announcements during the lulls of cattle actions and handbills made of papyrus were tacked up at community bulletin boards.

Prostitutes at Ephesus advertised their services outside the doorway of the brothel with an inscription of a foot and a woman with a mohawk haircut. Ancient Greek Parties and Symposia Banquet scene A symposium was a dinner party with family, friends or associates. It generally began with a bout of drinking, followed by a big meal.

How Theater in Ancient Greece Evolved

There were often rules to ensure equality. Conversation topics included philosophy, politics, gossip. For a short period Greeks used birthday cakes. The word symposia was used to describe the party and the place were it was held and is the source of the modern word symposium.

The parties were usually lead by a feast master. Sometimes the guests wore garlands. Some people drank heavily; others held back. The host pays a man from Syracuse to bring traveling performers probably slavesa girl flutists, acrobats, a dancing girl and a boy who dances and plays the kitharaa kind of lyre. The group played music and did performances involving music, dance, acrobatics and mine.

The girl juggled hoops, performed acrobatic stunts over a hoop rimmed with knives, and acted out mythical love scenes with the boy. Socrates, one of the guests, was quite taken with the boy.

Ancient Greek Theatres

The citizens of Sybaris in present-day southern Italy were such big partiers they reportedly banned roosters so the populous would not be woken to early in the morning. They also supposedly had wine piped directly from the vineyards to the city.

  • Euripides Oedipus sphinx Euripides had even more characters than Sophocles and focused on more human issues;
  • The cavea of the theatre, facing southwest, is constructed of hard yellowish poros stone, while the stage building is made of local limestone;
  • Theaters built later on had a vomitorium , so named because it discouraged the audience after a performance;
  • Above the central cuneus, a wide exit, secured with a movable grille, was used to let the audience stream out en masse after the performance;
  • Theaters built later on had a vomitorium , so named because it discouraged the audience after a performance;
  • Region of Epirus, Regional Unit of Ioannina 20.

Wild Dionysus Festivals To pay their respect to Dionysus, the citizens of Athens, and other city-states, held a winter-time festival in which a large phallus was erected and displayed. After competitions were held to see who could empty their jug of wine the quickest, a procession from the sea to the city was held with flute players, garland bearers and honored citizens dressed as satyrs and maenads nymphswhich were often paired together.

At the end of the procession a bull was sacrificed symbolizing the fertility god's marriage to the queen of the city. Maenads were subjects of numerous vase paintings. Like Dionysus himself they often depicted with a crown of iv and fawn skins draped over one shoulder. To express the speed and wildness of their movement the figures in the vase images had flying tresses and cocked back head.

Their limbs were often in awkward positions, suggesting drunkenness. Lawrence Alma-Tadema's Dedication to Bacchus The main purveyors of the Dionysus fertility cult "These drunken devotees of Dionysus," wrote Boorstin, "filled with their god, felt no pain or fatigue, for they possessed the powers of the god himself.

And they enjoyed one another to the rhythm the development of different kinds of theaters in greece drum and pipe. At the climax of their mad dances the maenads, with their bare hands would tear apart some little animal that they had nourished at their breast.

Then, as Euripides observed, they would enjoy 'the banquet of raw flesh. On another occasion a government official that forbade the worship of Dionysus was bewitched into dressing up like a maenad and enticed into one of their orgies. When the maenads discovered him, he was torn to pieces until only a severed head remained.

On at least one occasion these dances were banned and an effort was made to chancel the energy into something else such as poetry reading contests. The Thesmophoria promoted fertility and honored Persephone with piglet sacrifices and the offering of mass-produced statues of the goddess to receive her blessing. The Adonia honored Aphrodite's lover Adonis.

It was a riotous festival in which lovers had openly licentious affairs and seeds were planting to mark the beginning of the planting season. Lawrence Alma-Tadema's Vintage Festival During Thesmophoria, an annual Athenian event to honor Demeter and Persephone, women and men who required to abstain from sex and fast for three days.

Women erected bowers made of branches and sat there during their fast.

  • The emphasis was on beauty;;;
  • With its elaborate masks and costumes and rigidly formalized music, Greek drama has been described as a cross between Japanese Noh theater and grand opera;
  • In 100 AD a second entrance was added with a ramp on its north side;
  • They consisted of three main elements;
  • The theatral structure of the 5th c;
  • It was built in the 2nd c.

Pigs were sacred animals to Demeter. The piglet remains were laid on an Thesmphoria altar with offerings, launching a party with feasting, dancing and praying. This rite also featured little girls dressed up as bears. Ancient Greek Theaters The Epidaurus Theater in Epidaurus 70 kilometers south of Corinth is the most famous and best preserved ancient amphitheater theater in Greece.

Built into a hillside surrounded by trees in the 4th century B.

  • To express the speed and wildness of their movement the figures in the vase images had flying tresses and cocked back head;
  • Actors wore heavy wooden-soled boots and elaborate and expensive costumes paid for by wealthy citizens who tried to outdo each other in outrageousness and extravagance;
  • You meet my son just as he comes out of the gymnasium, all rise from the bath, and don't kiss him, you don't say a word to him, you don't hug him, you don't feel his balls!
  • Greek Theatre Theatre buildings were called a theatron;
  • A series of academic questions related to early theater;
  • The capacity of the theatre is estimated at approximately 13,000-14,000 spectators.

How is it possible for music and voices to be heard with such clarity in the back rows? Limestone seats form an acoustics filler that hushes low-frequency background noises such as the murmur of the crowd and reflects high-frequency noises of the performers on stage off the seats and back towards the seated audience members. The theater is also very steeply sloped 30 to 34 degrees. This is creates a shorter path for direct sound with few interferences in that direct path.

Ancient Greek Theatre

MCT, Georgia Institute of Technology] At the 8000-seat marble amphitheater in Aphrodisias in Asia Minor, audiences watched masked and robed actors perform dramas about conspiring slaves and two-timing wives.

When the show was over the audience was discouraged out of a gate called the vomitorium. Greek theater Origins of Ancient Greek Drama Ironically, the early forms of the Greek dramatic arts, which puts so many of us to sleep, sprung up out orgiastic Dionysian rites. The first phase of the metamorphosis began in the 7th century B. Dithyrambs were performed by a "circular chorus" of 50 men and boys who sang and danced around an altar in the orchestra area of a theater.

See Wild Dionysian Festivals Tribal choruses competed against one another in festivals sponsored by wealthy citizens. The first prize was a bull and a tripod dedicated to Dionysus, second prize was an amphora of wine, and third prize was a goat. At this point in time music, poetry and drama were essentially the same thing and the subjects of the poem-songs were the Greek myths and episodes from the Iliad and Odyssey.

Fertility festivals started dying out around this time because the harvests and rains they promised to deliver failed to arrive. The first Greek theaters were probably nothing the development of different kinds of theaters in greece than wooden benches placed around the outside of an agora where dramas were acted out. Greece and Asia Minor were blessed with a hilly landscape and the Greek theaters that replaced the makeshift market stages were usually carved into the sides of hills.

Epidaurus Theater At first wooden benches were set up, but later they were replaced by stone or marble seats. The first theaters had a circular orchestra for singers and dancers.

Ancient Greek Drama and Theater

This followed the tradition of the early Dionysus festivals when the merrymakers danced around a maypole, altar or image of a god. Theaters built later on had a vomitoriumso named because it discouraged the audience after a performance. Most have curved rows of concentric seats.

In back of the orchestra was a hall-like building with changing rooms and support for the scenery. Development of Ancient Greek Drama The development of drama took place on two fronts. First was the introduction of an audience.

At a Dionysus festival most everyone was a participant in the events. The next important step was the introduction of "actors"---people who stepped out of the chorus, bringing the singing to a halt, and acting out a skit. It enabled the audience too look upon actors and believe, for moments at a time, that they were different individuals than the people they really were, and they were acting out events that could be taking place in a different time.

The play was about a famous battle between Greeks and Persians lost by the Greeks that took place two year earlier. The play made audiences so depressed that laws were passed forbidding plays based on real life events.

  1. The final form of the theatre dates to the 1st c.
  2. His most successful play, both then and now--- Frogs ---ridiculed Sophocles and Euripides, only a year after they died, with characters dressed in frog costumes. Socrates, one of the guests, was quite taken with the boy.
  3. Of the cavea, only the seats in the central section remain, along with a sizeable part of their stepped foundations. The theatre is a huge monument, constructed almost exclusively of marble with rich relief decoration.

With a few exceptions, dramas after that were largely based on a rich supply of myths and famous stories. Masks allowed actors to play many different characters. Chorus members of all dramatic genres wore masks and costumes of characters depicted. Playwrights competed in fairly frequent contests, meaning they had to be prolific as well as talented.

For each competition dramatists were required to write a play about three-fourths of the length of Hamlet. Awards were given out based on the decision of a panel of ten judges. At the Greater Dionysian Festival awards were given in three categories: As the competitions evolved dithyrambs were replaced with theatrical dramas and there were separate categories for tragedy and comedy. Later the chorus played increasingly insignificant roles and was essentially phased out.

Early on many of the actors were amateurs. As time went on professionals began to dominate. During the Gold Age of Greece, productions of dramas was often paid for by wealthy citizens; attendance was often required for religious reasons; and the state paid the price of admission for the poor. Art, literature and drama blended easily with Athenian imperialism and with the version the development of different kinds of theaters in greece "democracy" that underpinned it. Sophocles - the 5th-century BC playwright whose tragedy Oedipus the King was part of the inspiration for Freud's "Oedipus complex" - is a nice example of how the blend worked.

Mary Beard, New Statesman, October 14, 2010] In 440BC, a few months after his Antigone won first prize at the Athenian drama festival, Sophocles served as one of the commanding officers of an Athenian task force that sailed off to put down a rebellion on the island of Samos.

The inhabitants had decided to break away from Athens's empire - the network of Athenian satellite states spread all over the eastern Mediterranean - and they had to be brought back into the fold. The irony was that a few decades earlier, Athens had led Greece to victory against a vast Persian invasion; now, the Athenians had imposed their own tight control over their former allies which may have left some wondering whether conquest by the Persians might have been the better option.

More equal than others The people of Samos got off lightly. They were brought back by force into "alliance" as the euphemism was with Athens but there was no mass enslavement, no massacre of the male population, no occupying garrison permanently stationed there, no confiscation of land, such as we find elsewhere in the Athenian orbit. The penalty paid by the Samians was modest - an imposed democracy, the removal of the island's independent naval deterrent and vast sums to pay in financial compensation over years to come.

Yet, oddly, at the time, there was a common story that he was elected to his military command because of the popular success of Antigone, that celebration of individual liberty.