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The history of south africa and nelson mandelas contribution

  • Mandela led the ANC in negotiations with de Klerk to end apartheid and bring about a peaceful transition to nonracial democracy in South Africa;
  • Mandela led the ANC in negotiations with de Klerk to end apartheid and bring about a peaceful transition to nonracial democracy in South Africa;
  • In December 1956 he was arrested with more than 100 other people on charges of treason that were designed to harass antiapartheid activists;
  • The South African government periodically made conditional offers of freedom to Mandela, most notably in 1976, on the condition that he recognize the newly independent—and highly controversial—status of the Transkei Bantustan and agree to reside there.

Oliver Tambo, and Nelson Mandela the latter two briefly had a joint law practice in Johannesburg. He traveled throughout the country as part of the campaign, trying to build support for nonviolent means of protest against the discriminatory laws.

In 1955 he was involved in drafting the Freedom Chartera document calling for nonracial social democracy in South Africa. Starting in 1952, he was intermittently banned severely restricted in travel, association, and speech. In December 1956 he was arrested with more than 100 other people on charges of treason that were designed to harass antiapartheid activists.

Mandela went on trial that same year and eventually was acquitted in 1961. During the extended court proceedings, he divorced his first wife and married Nomzamo Winifred Madikizela Winnie Madikizela-Mandela.

Underground activity and the Rivonia Trial After the massacre of unarmed black South Africans by police forces at Sharpeville in 1960 and the subsequent banning of the ANC, Mandela abandoned his nonviolent stance and began advocating acts of sabotage against the South African regime.

Nelson Mandela

In 1962 he went to Algeria for training in guerrilla warfare and sabotage, returning to South Africa later that year. On August 5, shortly after his return, Mandela was arrested at a road block in Natal ; he was subsequently sentenced to five years in prison.

In October 1963 the imprisoned Mandela and several other men were tried for sabotage, treason, and violent conspiracy in the infamous Rivonia Trial, named after a fashionable suburb of Johannesburg where raiding police had discovered quantities of arms and equipment at the headquarters of the underground Umkhonto we Sizwe.

His speech garnered international attention and acclaim and was published later that year as I Am Prepared to Die. On June 12, 1964, he was sentenced to life imprisonment, narrowly escaping the death penalty.

  • His speech garnered international attention and acclaim and was published later that year as I Am Prepared to Die;
  • The autobiography Long Walk to Freedom, which chronicles his early life and years in prison, was published in 1994.

He was subsequently kept at the maximum-security Pollsmoor Prison until 1988, when, after being treated for tuberculosishe was transferred to Victor Verster Prison near Paarl. The South African government periodically made conditional offers of freedom to Mandela, most notably in 1976, on the condition that he recognize the newly independent—and highly controversial—status of the Transkei Bantustan and agree to reside there.

An offer made in 1985 required that he renounce the use of violence. Mandela refused both offers, the second on the premise that only free men were able to engage in such negotiations and, as a prisoner, he was not a free man.

Nelson Mandela speaking from his jail cell 1964 in this video from the apartheid era that discusses the struggle for racial equality in South Africa.

Shortly after his release, Mandela was chosen deputy president of the ANC ; he became president of the party in July 1991. Mandela led the ANC in negotiations with de Klerk to end apartheid and bring about a peaceful transition to nonracial democracy in South Africa.

  • Underground activity and the Rivonia Trial After the massacre of unarmed black South Africans by police forces at Sharpeville in 1960 and the subsequent banning of the ANC, Mandela abandoned his nonviolent stance and began advocating acts of sabotage against the South African regime;
  • In 1955 he was involved in drafting the Freedom Charter , a document calling for nonracial social democracy in South Africa.

In 1996 he oversaw the enactment of a new democratic constitution. Mandela resigned his post with the ANC in December 1997, transferring leadership of the party to his designated successor, Thabo Mbeki.

Underground activity and the Rivonia Trial

Mandela and Madikizela-Mandela had divorced in 1996, and in 1998 Mandela married Graca Machelthe widow of Samora Machelthe former Mozambican president and leader of Frelimo. Mandela, NelsonNelson Mandela, 2003.

After leaving office Mandela retired from active politics but maintained a strong international presence as an advocate of peace, reconciliation, and social justiceoften through the work of the Nelson Mandela Foundation, established in 1999. He was a founding member of the Eldersa group of international leaders established in 2007 for the promotion of conflict resolution and problem solving throughout the world.

In 2008 Mandela was feted with several celebrations in South Africa, Great Britain, and other countries in honour of his 90th birthday. The autobiography Long Walk to Freedom, which chronicles his early life and years in prison, was published in 1994. An unfinished draft of his second volume of memoirs was completed by Mandla Langa and released posthumously as Dare Not Linger: The Presidential Years 2017. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: