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The history of the revision of the british columbian school curriculum of the late 1930s

Elaine Young And Erin James-abra Date Published Last Edited March 20, 2018 British Columbia is Canada's most westerly province, and is a mountainous area whose population is mainly clustered in its southwestern corner.

British Columbia is a land of diversity and contrast within small areas. Coastal landscapes, characterized by high, snow-covered mountains rising above narrow fjords and inlets, contrast with the broad forested upland of the central interior and the plains of the northeast. The intense "Britishness" of earlier times is referred to in the province's name, which originated with Queen Victoria and was officially proclaimed in 1858. The so-called "Lower Mainland," dominated by metropolitan Vancouvercontains over 60 per cent of the province's population and is its commercial, cultural and industrial centre.

The vast interior is dominated by parallel mountain ranges and its population spreads north—south along valleys, notably the Okanagan and the Kootenay. John in the Peace River Lowland. Each of these towns are centres of separate sub-regions and depend more on world markets than local markets. Much of the development of resource-based economic activity in the province has been concerned with linking these separate regions together into a broader provincial economy.

The northern half of the province is virtually uninhabited north of Prince Rupert and is cut off from the Pacific Ocean by the Alaska Panhandle.

The Peace River Lowland of the northeast is actually an extension of the Interior Plains and more closely resembles neighbouring Alberta than the rest of the province.

The Rocky Mountains rise abruptly about 1,000—1,500 m above the foothills of Alberta, and some of their snow- and ice-covered peaks tower more than 3,000 m above sea level; the highest peak in the Canadian Rockies, Mount Robsonwest of Jasper, AB, is 3,954 m. In the southern Rockies the sharp, jagged sedimentary rock peaks from the Palaeozoic era 542 to 251 million years ago differ from the older more rounded, lower peaks of Proterozoic era 2. Out of the trench flow the headwaters of the KootenayColumbiaFraserParsnip, Finlay, Kechika and Liard rivers, each separated from the others by low drainage divides.

Two other mountain systems lie west of the Rocky Mountain Trench: The Columbia Mountains consist of three parallel north—south ranges Purcell, Selkirk and Monashee with sharp peaks of 2,000—3,000 m separated by long, narrow valleys occupied by Kootenay Lake and the Columbia River.

These mountains consist mainly of sedimentary and intrusive rocks of Cretaceous 146 to 65. The fourth range of the group, the Cariboo Mountains northwest of the Thompson Riveris composed of sedimentary rocks of Proterozoic age which appear to have fewer mineral deposits. The Interior Plateau, made up of broad and gently rolling uplands, covers central British Columbia.

The region is a basin or watershed, because it is surrounded by higher mountains. Many of the rocks are lavas of Cretaceous and Tertiary 65. The Fraser River has cut deeply into the bedrock in the southern part of the plateau to form the spectacular Fraser River Canyon. The Stikine Plateau is to the north.

Another upland area of mainly Jurassic lava rocks with some recent volcanoes, the plateau contains the headwaters of the Stikine River. Both the Interior and Stikine plateaus are about 1,000 m above sea level. The northern end of the Cascade Mountains of Washington State terminates at the Fraser River, and then the high, snow and ice-covered peaks of the Coast Mountains extend northward along the Alaskan Panhandle into the Yukon.

These scenic mountains have peaks up to 3,000 m in the southern part, with Mount Waddington, the highest peak entirely in BC, rising to 4,016 m. The rocks are mostly granitic intrusions of Cretaceous and Tertiary ages and there are some recent volcanoes.

  1. European Settlement Due to its distance from the eastern coast of Canada and the barrier to east-west movement created by the mountains, the Pacific Northwest was very difficult for early Europeans to reach and was the last part of North America they explored. The rocks are mostly granitic intrusions of Cretaceous and Tertiary ages and there are some recent volcanoes.
  2. Aboriginal people depended on the resources of land and sea for their food, clothing and exchange.
  3. Today, many of the plants are concentrated in the southwest. The Stikine Plateau is to the north.
  4. However, the port and rail terminal at Prince Rupert never developed the anticipated volume of traffic, partly because there was little need for incoming freight.

The lower Coast Mountains 1,500—2,000 m near the Skeena River increase in altitude to the north. Only three major rivers have cut through the barrier of the Coast Mountains: The Fraser and Skeena river valleys have become the sites of the only land-transportation routes reaching the coast from the interior.

The offshore Insular Mountains are the partially submerged northern continuation of the Olympic Mountains and Coast Ranges of Washington state. They provide the land mass for both Vancouver Island and Haida Gwaii. The highest peak on Vancouver Island is the Golden Hindeat 2,200 m. All of British Columbia was under a thick sheet of ice during the ice age. Some coastal areas and interior valleys became ice-free about 12,000—15,000 years ago, and since then the coastal lowlands have been rising relative to sea level.

The remainder of the province became ice free 7,000—13,000 years ago. The results of continental and alpine glaciation can be seen everywhere in the province in fjords and cirques i.

Soils and Vegetation Approximately three per cent of British Columbia has soils suitable for agricultural production. As in most mountainous areas only the narrow floodplains, terraces and deltas of the river valleys have alluvial soils where crops can grow. Glacial deposition on the middle slopes of the mountains provides enough soil to support tree growth.

The coniferous trees of coastal British Columbia are the tallest and broadest trees in Canada.

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Douglas firwestern cedarbalsam firhemlock and Sitka spruce grow very well in the mild, wet climate and are the basis for the province's most valuable primary industry, forestry. Similar trees, plus lodgepole pineponderosa pine and aspen occupy the middle slopes of the interior mountains and plateaus. Depending on local conditions, such as slope and exposure, the upper treeline in southern BC is about 2,000 m and declines to about 1,000 m in the north.

Climate There are wide variations in climate within small areas of British Columbia. The major climate contrast is between the coast and the interior, but there are also significant variations between valleys and uplands, and between the northern and southern parts of the province.

Relatively warm air masses from the Pacific Ocean bring mild temperatures to the coast during the winters, while cold water keeps coastal temperatures cool in the summer.

The barrier of the Coast Mountains keeps these moderating conditions from moving inland. In contrast, in winter the interior may be covered by cold air masses pushing south from the Yukon or Alaska, particularly in the northern part of the province.

The air masses from the Pacific bring ample rainfall to the coast, particularly in the autumn and winter. The interior valleys on the eastern side of the mountains receive much less precipitation.

The west-facing mountains of Vancouver Island receive more than 2,500 mm of annual precipitation, whereas the east-coast lowland records only about 700 to 1,000 mm. The western slopes of the Coast Mountains accumulate 1,000 to 3,000 mm annually, of which a high percentage is snowfall. However, the Okanagan Valley receives a mere 250 mm of annual precipitation.

The well-publicized mild, wet winters and cool, dry summers associated with British Columbia are characteristic only of the southwest; the rest of the province experiences temperature conditions similar to those on the plains of Alberta and Saskatchewan.

Natural Resources About 60 per cent of British Columbia is forested, accounting for approximately 19. The geology of most mountainous areas is favourable to mineralization, and BC is no exception. A wide range of metals has been discovered throughout the mountainous part of the province, including leadzincgoldsilvermolybdenumcopper and iron.

The Peace River Lowlandnortheast of the Rocky Mountains, has a different geological base consisting of younger, sedimentary rocks which have been the sources of petroleumnatural gas and coal.

Because the Rocky Mountains are lower west of the region, and since Pacific air masses can cross over with less modification, the Peace River country receives more annual precipitation than nearby east-central Alberta Corel Professional Photos.

BC has the largest provincial potential for electric power generation, as the heavy precipitation, steep mountain slopes and large, interior drainage basins are ideal physical conditions for the production of hydroelectric power. However, some of the large interior rivers have not been harnessed because it would damage the habitat of the Pacific salmon which spawn in the headwaters of coastal and interior rivers flowing into the Pacific Ocean.

Conservation The balance between economic development and environmental protection is particularly troublesome in British Columbia, which relies heavily on renewable resources. The salmon fishery has been threatened by overfishing and the destruction of marine and river habitats in some places, and some of British Columbia's scarce agricultural land has been lost to roads, housing and industry.

Early provincial governments were primarily concerned with rapid development to promote local employment. However, especially since the Second World Warmuch legislation has been enacted to preserve the environment and natural resources. The success of reforestation programs has been questioned, but forestry is being managed by the principle of "sustained yield. The British Columbia Ecological Reserves Act 1971 set aside numerous reserves of representative ecosystems.

Metropolitan Vancouver is the largest city in the province. There are three additional metropolitan areas: Abbotsford-MissionKelowna and Victoriathe capital.

British Columbia

JohnTerrace and Williams Lake. Labour Force Of those participating in the workforce, 80 per cent worked in the service sector in 2015. Within this sector the three largest employers were the trades, health care and social assistance, and professional services e.

Within the goods-producing sector which employs the remaining 20 per centthe biggest employers were construction and manufacturing. In 2015, unemployment was 6. Language and Ethnicity British Columbia is one of the most ethnically diverse provinces in the country.

Similar to other provinces, the top ethnic origins reported in the 2011 National Household Survey reflected European roots the top three were English, Scottish and Canadian.

There is also a relatively significant Aboriginal population just over 5 per cent in 2011. In the mid-19th century Chinese people began working in the mines of the Cariboo, and in the early 1880s many more Chinese were brought to BC as labourers for the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway CPR. Afterwards many of them settled in Vancouver, and a smaller "Chinatown" also arose in Victoria. Japanese Canadians also settled in southwestern BC between 1900 and 1940. As in other parts of Canada, the percentage of people of British origin has declined rapidly since 1950.

The earlier part of the province's history was marred by racismparticularly the anti-Asiatic riots of 1907 and the Komagata Maru incident of 1914. Stirred up by politicians of all parties, fears were rampant that British Columbia's future as a "white province" was threatened. The population of Japanese and Chinese was less than 40,000 in 1921, but their concentration in the Lower Mainland and southern Vancouver Island, combined with the restricted forms of employment available to them, made them conspicuous.

Because they were hard-working and forced to take lower wages the Japanese and Chinese population was considered unfair competition by the unions and the agricultural community.

The campaign of the Asiatic Exclusion League established 1921 and others resulted in the Chinese Immigration Act of 1923, which effectively ended Chinese immigration. Political discrimination against non-whites in BC finally ended after the Second World War when the Chinese and Hindu populations were enfranchised in 1947, and the Japanese in 1949.

Religion Since the near majority of people in BC have some British background and are English-speaking, as in other parts of Canada, they are predominantly Christian about 45 per cent according to the 2011 National Household Survey. Those claiming no religious affiliation numbered just over 44 per cent. Occupation of some sites in BC has been confirmed by carbon dating at about 6,000—8,000 years ago.

The people of the Northwest Coast lived in autonomous villages of 200 to 1,000 people and had access to a particularly bountiful environment that provided abundant shellfish, salmon and even whales. Groups living along the coast used a variety of fishing tools and techniques, and used forest resources to build large and sophisticated plank houses.

The coastal people concentrated along the lower reaches of the major salmon rivers. These groups developed an elaborate culture typified by totem poles and the potlatch see Tagish ; Tsimshian ; Haida ; Tlingit ; Kwakiutl ; Nootka ; and Native People: The interior inhabitants, such as the CarrierInterior Salish and Kootenay were generally nomadic and depended on hunting.

Those groups living in the Subarctic region of the interior generally fished and hunted moose and caribou, while those living in the southern interior had a milder climate.