Essays academic service

The history of the town of jericho

An expanded range of domesticated plants was created in this period as well as the possible domestication of sheep.

There is also evidence pointing to certain cult practices involving the preservation of human skulls, with facial features reconstructed from plaster and eyes set with shells in some cases. After the PPN A settlement-phase there was a settlement hiatus of several centuries. Then the PPN B settlement was founded on the eroded surface of the tell. The architecture consisted of rectilinear buildings made of mud-bricks on stone foundations.

The mud-bricks were loaf-shaped with deep thumb prints to facilitate bounding. No building has been excavated in its entirety. Normally, several rooms cluster around a central courtyard. There is one big room 6. The rest are small, presumably used for storage.

The rooms have red or pinkish terrazzo floors made of lime. Some impressions of mats made of reeds or rushes have been preserved. The courtyards have clay floors. Kathleen Kenyon interpreted one building as a shrine. It contained a niche in the wall.

A chipped pillar of volcanic stone that was found nearby might have fit into this niche. The dead were buried under the floors or in the rubble fill of abandoned buildings. There are several collective burials and not all the skeletons are completely articulated, which may point to a time of exposure before burial.

A skull cache contained seven skulls. The jaws were removed, the face covered with plaster, cowries were used for eyes. Ten skulls were found in all. Modeled skulls were found in Tell Ramad and Beisamoun as well. One percent obsidian, Ciftlik, and green obsidian from unknown source Ground stone: Dishes and bowls carved from soft limestone.

Spindle whorls made of stone and maybe loom weights Bone Tools: Spatulas and drills Stylized anthropomorphic plaster figures, almost life-size Anthropomorphic and theriomorphic clay figurines Shell and malachite beads Pottery Neolithic A and B Late fourth millennium B. Jericho was occupied during Neolithic 2 and the general character of the remains on the site link it culturally with Neolithic 2 sites in the West Syrian and Middle Euphrates groups.

There are the rectilinear mud-brick buildings and plaster floors.

The Bible describes the destruction as having proceeded from the actions of JoshuaMoses' successor. The exodus is usually dated to the 13th century B. At that time the pharaoh of Egypt would have been Ramses II. Alternatively, the exodus is dated to the 15th century B. Neither biblical chronology matches the popular interpretation of the archeological evidence at Jericho. A destruction of Jericho's walls dates archeologically to around 1550 B.

Has the biblical city and story of Jericho been verified?

Opinions differ as to whether they are the walls referred to in the Bible. According to one biblical chronology, the Israelites destroyed Jericho at the end of the 15th century, after its walls had fallen around 1407 B. Originally, John Garstang's excavation in the 1930s dated Jericho's destruction to around 1400 B. Kathleen Kenyon's excavation in the 1950s re-dated the fall of the walls to around 1550 B.

  1. The Story of Biblical Archaeology!
  2. Scripture reveals the concubine was sent outside, and the evil men of the city "raped her and abused her throughout the night, and at dawn they let her go" Jud. The ancient city of Jericho had survived, despite the burning to the ground for a second time on account of the tribe of Benjamin's evil.
  3. Thus, the ancient city of Jericho was burned to the ground a second time. Scripture relates Ehud had fashioned "a sword which had two edges, a cubit in length".

Observing ambiguities and relying on the only available carbon dating of the burn layer, which yielded a date of 1410 B. Unfortunately, this carbon date was itself the result of faulty calibration.

In 1995, Hendrik J. Bruins and Johannes van der Plicht used high-precision radiocarbon dating for 18 samples from Jericho, including six samples of charred cereal grains from the burn layer, and overall dated the destruction to 1562 B. Notably, many other Canaanite cities were destroyed around this time.

Scholars who link these walls to the biblical account must explain how the Israelites arrived around 1550 B. They must also devise a new biblical chronology that corresponds.

  • The Middle Building was an isolated structure, as the Bible implies;
  • Jehoshaphat then began to fortify all the cities of Canaan in anticipation of war from these neighboring threats;
  • This would seem to imply the Moabites and Ammonites felt Jericho was too strong of a city and its influence in that region too strong - thus they took the route of less resistance and went around Jericho;
  • Ehud travels to the ancient city of Jericho to pay tribute to King Eglon of Ammon;
  • The Bible tells us that Eglon sought the assistance of the Ammonites and Amalekites to join him in his conquest;
  • Yet, the ancient city of Jericho was a town of Benjamin, and the Bible states explicitly here that; all the towns of Benjamin were burned to the ground.

The current opinion of many archaeologists is in stark contradiction to the biblical account. The widespread destructions of the 16th century B.

  • The Israelite leadership had anticipated this threat as the Moabites and Ammonites were constantly a thorn in their side;
  • After Sodom and Gomorrah were destroyed, Lot, the nephew of Abraham, fled with his daughters to the caves around the Dead Sea.

Interestingly, the first-century historian Josephusin Against Apion, identified the Exodus of Israelites according to the Bible as the Expulsion of the Hyksos according to the Egyptian texts. Nevertheless, Josephus's historical inaccuracies should be considered and his word not taken as law.

A few scholars follow the controversial new chronology of David Rohl, which postulates that the entire mainstream Egyptian chronology is three hundred years misplaced; therefore, the exodus would be dated to the 16th or 17th century B.

Despite this, a number of literalist Christians, most prominently the the history of the town of jericho Egyptologist Kenneth Kitchen, have vehemently attacked Rohl's chronology, since it introduces a number of other problems and issues such as identifying the biblical Shishak as Ramses II, rather than the far more obviously named Shoshenq.

Tulul Abu el-'Alayiq A later settlement spanned the Hellenistic, New Testamentand Islamic periods, leaving mounds located at Tulul Abu el-'Alayiq, approximately one and a half miles west of modern er-Riha. It is suspected that this settlement was very violent. Here are some examples: Prior to Moses 's death, God is said to have shown him the Promised Land in the Book of Deuteronomy with Jericho as a point of reference: And the Lord showed him all the land, even Gilead as far as Dan.

The Book of Joshua describes the famous siege of Jericho, claiming that it was circled seven times by the ancient Children of Israel until its walls came tumbling down, after which Joshua cursed the city: Retrieved May 22, 2007. References Bartlett, John R.

Cities of the Biblical World. Co; 1st American edition. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation. To cite this article click here for a list of acceptable citing formats. The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here: