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Trust vs mistrust erikson stages of development

Contact Erik Erikson Life stages Erik Erikson in the 1950s and 1960s proposed a psychoanalytic theory of psychosocial development comprising eight stages from infancy to adulthood. During each stage, the person experiences a psychosocial crisis which could have a positive or negative outcome for personality development. He emphasized the role of culture and society and the conflicts that can take place within the ego itself, whereas Freud emphasized the conflict between the id and the supergo.

According to Erikson, the ego develops as it successfully resolves crises that are distinctly social in nature. These involve establishing a sense of trust in others, developing a sense of identity in society, and helping the next generation prepare for the future.

  • During this stage the body image of the adolescent changes;
  • Elements for a positive outcome;
  • During this stage, the infant is uncertain about the world in which they live;
  • Avoiding intimacy, fearing commitment and relationships can lead to isolation, loneliness, and sometimes depression;
  • Erikson's first psychosocial crisis occurs during the first year or so of life like Freud's oral stage of psychosexual development.

Like Freud and many others, Erik Erikson maintained that personality develops in a predetermined order, and builds upon each previous stage. This is called the epigenic principle. However, instead of focusing on sexual development like Freudhe was interested in how children socialize and how this affects their sense of self.

Like Freud, Erikson assumes that a crisis occurs at each stage of development. For Erikson 1963these crises are of a psychosocial nature because they involve psychological needs of the individual i.

  • According to the theory, successful completion of each stage results in a healthy personality and the acquisition of basic virtues;
  • Parental consistency and responsiveness is essential for the sense of trust todevelop;
  • This infant will carry the basic sense of mistrust with them to other relationships;
  • Wisdom enables a person to look back on their life with a sense of closure and completeness, and also accept death without fear;
  • Many people find that they can relate to his theories about various stages of the life cycle through their own experiences.

According to the theory, successful completion of each stage results in a healthy personality and the acquisition of basic virtues. Basic virtues are characteristic strengths which the ego can use to resolve subsequent crises. Failure to successfully complete a stage can result in a reduced ability to complete further stages and therefore a more unhealthy personality and sense of self. These stages, however, can be resolved successfully at a later time. Trust vs mistrust Is the world a safe place or is it full of unpredictable events and accidents waiting to happen?

The crisis is one of trust vs.

• Psycho social Stages of Development 8 stages:Erik Erikson

During this stage the infant is uncertain about the world in which they live. To trust vs mistrust erikson stages of development these feelings of uncertainty the infant looks towards their primary caregiver for stability and consistency of care. If the care the infant receives is consistent, predictable and reliable, they will develop a sense of trust which will carry with them to other relationships, and they will be able to feel secure even when threatened.

Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of hope. By developing a sense of trust, the infant can have hope that as new crises arise, there is a real possibility that other people will be there are a source of support.

Failing to acquire the virtue of hope will lead to the development of fear. For example, if the care has been harsh or inconsistent, unpredictable and unreliable, then the infant will develop a sense of mistrust and will not have confidence in the world around them or in their abilities to influence events. This infant will carry the basic sense of mistrust with them to other relationships. It may result in anxiety, heightened insecurities, and an over feeling of mistrust in the world around them.

Shame and Doubt The child is developing physically and becoming more mobile. Between the ages of 18 months and three, children begin to assert their independence, by walking away from their mother, picking which toy to play with, and making choices about what they like to wear, to eat, etc.

The child is discovering that he or she has many skills and abilities, such as putting on clothes and shoes, playing with toys, etc. Erikson states it is critical that parents allow their children to explore the limits of their abilities within an encouraging environment which is tolerant of failure. So, the parents need to encourage the child to becoming more independent whilst at the same time protecting the child so that constant failure is avoided. A delicate balance is required from the parent.

They must try not to do everything for the child but if the child fails at a particular task they must not criticize the child for failures and accidents particularly when toilet training. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of will. If children in this stage are encouraged and supported in their increased independence, they become more confident and secure in their own ability to survive in the world.

If children are criticised, overly controlled, or not given the opportunity to assert themselves, they begin to feel inadequate in their ability to survive, and may then become overly dependent upon others,lack self esteem, and feel a sense of shame or doubt in their own abilities.

Guilt Around age three and continuing to age five, children assert themselves more frequently. During this period the primary feature involves the child regularly interacting with other children at school. Central to this stage is play, as it provides children with the opportunity to explore their interpersonal skills through initiating activities. Children begin to plan activities, make up games, and initiate activities with others.

If given this opportunity, children develop a sense of initiative, and feel secure in their ability to lead others and make decisions. Conversely, if this tendency is squelched, either through criticism or control, children develop a sense of guilt.

They may feel like a nuisance to others and will therefore remain trust vs mistrust erikson stages of development, lacking in self-initiative. The child takes initiatives which the parents will often try to stop in order to protect the child.

Stage 1: Oral-Sensory

The child will often overstep the mark in his forcefulness and the danger is that the parents will tend to punish the child and restrict his initiatives too much. It is at this stage that the child will begin to ask many questions as his thirst for knowledge grows.

Committed to people development

Too much guilt can make the child slow to interact with others and may inhibit their creativity. Some guilt is, of course, necessary, otherwise the child would not know how to exercise self control or have a conscience. A healthy balance between initiative and guilt is important.

Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of purpose. The stage occurs during childhood between the ages of five and twelve. Children are at the stage where they will be learning to read and write, to do sums, to do things on their own. The child now feels the need to win approval by demonstrating specific competencies that are valued by society, and begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments.

  • Many people find that they can relate to his theories about various stages of the life cycle through their own experiences;
  • Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of love;
  • Some failure may be necessary so that the child can develop some modesty;
  • Like Freud and many others, Erik Erikson maintained that personality develops in a predetermined order, and builds upon each previous stage.

If children are encouraged and reinforced for their initiative, they begin to feel industrious and feel confident in their ability to achieve goals. If this initiative is not encouraged, if it is restricted by parents or teacher, then the child begins to feel inferior, trust vs mistrust erikson stages of development his own abilities and therefore may not reach his or her potential. If the child cannot develop the specific skill they feel society is demanding e. Some failure may be necessary so that the child can develop some modesty.

Yet again, a balance between competence and modesty is necessary. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of competence. Role Confusion The fifth stage is identity vs. During this stage adolescents search for a sense of self and personal identity, through an intense exploration of personal values, beliefs and goals. The adolescent mind is essentially a mind or moratorium, a psychosocial stage between childhood and adulthood, and between the morality learned by the child, and the ethics to be developed by the adult Erikson p.

Children are becoming more independent, and begin to look at the future in terms of career, relationships, families, trust vs mistrust erikson stages of development, etc.

The individual wants to belong to a society and fit in. It is during this stage that the adolescent will re-examine his identity and try to find out exactly who he or she is. Erikson suggests that two identities are involved: During this stage the body image of the adolescent changes.

Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of fidelity. During this period, they explore possibilities and begin to form their own identity based upon the outcome of their explorations. Role confusion involves the individual not being sure about themselves or their place in society. In response to role confusion or identity crisis an adolescent may begin to experiment with different lifestyles e.

Also pressuring someone into an identity can result in rebellion in the form of establishing a negative identity, and in addition to this feeling of unhappiness. Isolation Occurring in young adulthood ages 18 to 40 yrswe begin to share ourselves more intimately with others. We explore relationships leading toward longer term commitments with someone other than a family member. Successful completion of this stage can lead to comfortable relationships and a sense of commitment, safety, and care within a relationship.

Avoiding intimacy, fearing commitment and relationships can lead to isolation, loneliness, and sometimes depression. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of love. Stagnation During middle adulthood ages 40 to 65 yrswe establish our careers, settle down within a relationship, begin our own families and develop a sense of being a part of the bigger picture.

We give back to society through raising our children, being productive at work, and becoming involved in community activities and organizations. By failing to achieve these objectives, we become stagnant and feel unproductive. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of care.

  1. Generativity refers to "making your mark" on the world through creating or nurturing things that will outlast an individual. They may feel like a nuisance to others and will therefore remain followers, lacking in self-initiative.
  2. Again, a balance between competence and modesty is necessary. If the care the infant receives is consistent, predictable and reliable, they will develop a sense of trust which will carry with them to other relationships, and they will be able to feel secure even when threatened.
  3. Elements for a positive outcome.
  4. If the care the infant receives is consistent, predictable and reliable, they will develop a sense of trust which will carry with them to other relationships, and they will be able to feel secure even when threatened.

It is during this time that we contemplate our accomplishments and are able to develop integrity if we see ourselves as leading a successful life. Erik Erikson believed if we see our lives as unproductive, feel guilt about our past, or feel that we did not accomplish our life goals, we become dissatisfied with life and develop despair, often leading to depression and hopelessness.

Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of wisdom. Wisdom enables a person to look back on their life with a sense of closure and completeness, and also accept death without fear. Many people find that they can relate to his theories about various stagesof the life cycle through their own experiences. However, Erikson is rather vague about the causes of development.

What kinds of experiences must people have in order to successfully resolve various psychosocial conflicts and move from one stage to another?

Erik Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development

The theory does not have a universal mechanism for crisis resolution. Indeed, Erikson 1964 acknowledges his theory is more a descriptive overview of human social and emotional development that does not adequately explain how or why this development occurs. For example, Erikson does not explicitly explain how the outcome of one psychosocial stage influences personality at a later stage. Its purpose then is to provide aframework within which development can be considered rather than testable theory.

Taken from Simply Psychology.