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What is the definition of research methodology

Once can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. It is actually a voyage of discovery.

A broad definition of research is given by Martyn Shuttleworth "In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge. It consists of three steps: Pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question.

Objectives of Research The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures. The main aim of research is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet. Though each research study has its own specific purpose, we may think of research objectives as falling into a number of following broad groupings: To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it studies with this object in view are termed as exploratory or formulative research studies ; To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation what is the definition of research methodology a group studies with this object in view are known as descriptive research studies ; Md.

Saeed Anwar, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh Basic Concepts of Research Methodology To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else studies with this object in view are known as diagnostic research studies ; To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables such studies are known as hypothesis-testing research studies.

Characteristics of Good Research Good research is systematic: Good research is logical Good research is empirical Good research is replicable Social Research Social research refers to research conducted by social scientists, which follows by the systematic plan.

Quantitative designs approach social phenomena through quantifiable evidence, and often rely on statistical analysis of many cases or across intentionally designed treatments in an experiment to create valid and reliable general claims. Qualitative designs emphasize understanding of social phenomena through direct observation, communication with participants, or analysis of texts, and may stress contextual and subjective accuracy over generality.

Social research is the scientific study of society.

Meaning Of Research Research Methodology

The scope of social research can be small or large, ranging from the self or a single individual to spanning an entire race or country. Social research determines the relationship between one or more variables. Young which is as follows: Objectives of Social Research Social Research is a scientific approach of adding to the knowledge about society and social phenomena. Knowledge to be meaningful should have a definite purpose and direction. The growth of knowledge is closely linked to the methods and approaches used what is the definition of research methodology research investigation.

Hence the social science research must be guided by certain laid down objectives enumerated below: Social science helps us to obtain and add to the knowledge of social phenomena. This is one of the most important objectives of social research.

Scientific Study of Social Life: Social research is an attempt to acquire knowledge about the social phenomena. Man being the part of a society, social research studies human being as an individual, human behavior and collects data about various aspects of the social life of man and formulates law in this regards.

The ultimate objective of the social science study is often and always to enhance the welfare of humanity. No scientific research makes only for the sake of study. The welfare of humanity is the most common objective in social science research. Young, social research aims to clarify facts. The classification of facts plays important role in any scientific research.

  • What is meant by academic research?
  • Can be effectively used to focus on details regarding issues found through surveys or other data collection methods;
  • It involves counting of the number of cases falling into each of several categories;
  • Hypothesis of the Study Hypothesis is a tentative conjecture explaining an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further observation, investigation, or experimentation;
  • Research attempts to find answer intellectual and practical questions through application of systematic methods.

Social control and Prediction: In social research we generally study of the social phenomena, events and the factors that govern and guide them. Subject which is overdone should not be normally chosen, for it will be a difficult task to throw any new light in such a case; 2. Controversial subject should not become the choice of an average researcher; what is the definition of research methodology.

Too narrow or too vague problems should be avoided; 4. The research focus i. Statement of the Problem This statement signifies the need for defining a research problem. The problem to be investigated must be defined unambiguously for that will help to discriminate relevant data from the irrelevant ones. A proper definition of research problem will enable the researcher to be on the track whereas an ill-defined problem may create hurdles. Defining a research problem properly and clearly is a crucial part of a research study and must in no case be accomplished hurriedly.

However, in practice this a frequently overlooked which causes a lot of problems later on. Hence, the research problem should be defined in a systematic manner, giving due weightage to all relating points. Saeed Anwar, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh Basic Concepts of Research Methodology technique for the purpose involves the undertaking of the following steps generally one after the other: Statement of the problem in a general way; Understanding the nature of the problem; Surveying the available literature Developing the ideas through discussions; and Rephrasing the research problem into a working proposition Literature Review A literature review is a text written by someone to consider the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings, as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic.

It provides an overview and a critical evaluation of a body of literature relating to a research topic or a research problem. It analyzes a body of literature in order to classify it by themes or categories, rather than simply discussing individual works one after another. Characteristics of Good Literature Review It is organized around issues, themes, factors, or variables that are related directly to the thesis or research question.

It indicates the theoretical framework that the researcher is working with. It places the formation of research questions in their historical and disciplinary context. It identifies the most important authors engaged in similar work. It offers an explanation of how the researcher can contribute toward the existing body of scholarship by pursuing their own thesis or research question Objective of the Study Md. These objectives should be closely related to the research problem.

The general objective of a study states what researchers expect to achieve by the study in general terms. It is possible and advisable to break down a general objective into smaller, logically connected parts. These are normally referred to as specific objectives. Specific objectives should systematically address the various research questions. They should specify what you will do in your study, where what is the definition of research methodology for what purpose.

Hypothesis of the Study Hypothesis is a tentative conjecture explaining an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further observation, investigation, or experimentation. Hypotheses are testable explanations of a problem, phenomenon, or observation. Both quantitative and qualitative research involve formulating a hypothesis to address the research problem.

  1. Can be administered in written form or online. Hypotheses that suggest a causal relationship involve at least one independent variable and at least one dependent variable; in other words, one variable which is presumed to affect the other.
  2. Researcher can better appreciate only through interpretation why his findings are what they are and can make others to understand the real significance of his research findings. Qualitative designs emphasize understanding of social phenomena through direct observation, communication with participants, or analysis of texts, and may stress contextual and subjective accuracy over generality.
  3. Most research studies result in a large volume of raw data which must be reduced into homogeneous groups if we are to get meaningful relationships.
  4. The number of degrees of freedom is a measure of how certain we are that our sample population is representative of the entire population - the more degrees of freedom, usually the more certain we can be that we have accurately sampled the entire population. It is through interpretation that the researcher can well understand the abstract principle that works beneath his findings.

Hypotheses that suggest a causal relationship involve at least one independent variable and at least one dependent variable; in other words, one variable which is presumed to affect the other. Type of Hypothesis 1. The null hypothesis states that there is no association between the predictor and outcome variables in the population.

The null hypothesis is the formal basis for testing statistical significance. The null hypothesis states that there is association between the predictor and outcome variables in the population. The alternative hypothesis cannot be tested directly; it is accepted by exclusion if the test of statistical significance rejects the null hypothesis. One and Two-tailed Hypotheses A one-tailed or one-sided hypothesis specifies the direction of the association between the predictor and outcome variables.

A two-tailed hypothesis states only that an association exists; it does not specify the direction. Saeed Anwar, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh Basic Concepts of Research Methodology Characteristics of Hypothesis A hypothesis should state the expected pattern, relationship or difference between two or more variables; A hypothesis should be testable; A hypothesis should offer a tentative explanation based on theories or previous research; A hypothesis should be concise and lucid.

Variables of the Study Variable is observation that can take different values. It is a measurable characteristic that varies. It may change from group to group, person to person, or even within one person over time. A variable is an object, event, idea, feeling, time period, or any other type of category you are trying to measure. What is the definition of research methodology are two types of variables-independent and dependent.

An independent variable is exactly what it sounds like. It is a variable that stands alone and isn't changed by the other variables you are trying to measure. For example, someone's age might be an independent variable. Just like an independent variable, a dependent variable is exactly what it sounds like.

  1. The task of interpretation has two major aspects viz. An independent variable is exactly what it sounds like.
  2. Descriptive statistics includes statistical procedures that we use to describe the population we are studying. Such rankings are not absolute but rather relative to each other.
  3. What is the process of research? During the stress of interviewing the interviewer cannot always record responses completely and legibly.

It is something that depends on other factors. Independent variable causes a change in Dependent Variable and it isn't possible that Dependent Variable could cause a change in Independent Variable. Conceptual Framework Conceptual Framework is a written or visual presentation that explains either graphically, or in narrative form, the main things to be studied — the key factors, concepts or variables and the presumed relationship among them.

The main objective in forming a conceptual framework is to help the researcher give direction to the research. The conceptual framework identifies the research tools and methods that may be used to carry out the research effectively. Saeed Anwar, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh Basic Concepts of Research Methodology Theoretical Framework The objective of forming a theoretical framework is to define a broad framework within which a researcher may work.

The theoretical framework enhances overall clarity of the research. It also helps the researcher get through the research faster as he has to look only for information within the theoretical framework, and not follow up any other information he finds on the topic. This is founded on the theoretical framework, which lies on a much broader scale of resolution.

The theoretical framework dwells on time tested theories that embody the findings of numerous investigations on how phenomena occur. The theoretical framework provides a general representation of relationships between things in a given phenomenon. The conceptual framework, on the other hand, embodies the specific direction by which the research will have to be undertaken.

Statistically speaking, the what is the definition of research methodology framework describes the relationship between specific variables identified in the study.

methodology

It also outlines the input, process and output of the whole investigation. The conceptual framework is also called the research paradigm. The theoretical framework looks at time-tested theories in relation to any research topic.

The conceptual framework is the researcher's idea on how the research problem will be explored, keeping in mind the theories put forth in the theoretical framework. The theoretical framework looks at the general relationship of things in a phenomenon, while conceptual framework puts forth the methods to study the relationship between the specific variables identified in the research topic.