Essays academic service


A biography of benjamin franklin born in the city of boston mass

Early life in Boston Franklin's birthplace on Milk StreetBoston, Massachusetts Franklin's birthplace site directly across from Old South Meeting House on Milk Street is commemorated by a bust above the second floor facade of this building. Among Benjamin's siblings were his older brother James and his younger sister Jane. Josiah wanted Ben to attend school with the clergy, but only had enough money to send him to school for two years.

He attended Boston Latin School but did not graduate; he continued his education through voracious reading. Although "his parents talked of the church as a career" [13] for Franklin, his schooling ended when he was ten.

He worked for his father for a time, and at 12 he became an apprentice to his brother James, a printer, who taught Ben the printing trade. When Ben was 15, James founded The New-England Courantwhich was the first truly independent newspaper in the colonies. When denied the chance to write a letter to the paper for publication, Franklin adopted the pseudonym of " Silence Dogood ", a middle-aged widow.

Dogood's letters were published, and became a subject of conversation around town. Neither James nor the Courant's readers were aware of the ruse, and James was unhappy with Ben when he discovered the popular correspondent was his younger brother.

Franklin was an advocate of free speech from an early age. When his brother was jailed for three weeks in 1722 for publishing material unflattering to the governor, young Franklin took over the newspaper and had Mrs.

Benjamin Franklin: Founding Father, Entrepreneur, and Scientist

Dogood quoting Cato's Letters proclaim: When he first arrived, he worked in several printer shops around town, but he was not satisfied by the immediate prospects. After a few months, while working in a printing house, Franklin was convinced by Pennsylvania Governor Sir William Keith to go to London, ostensibly to acquire the equipment necessary for establishing another newspaper in Philadelphia.

Finding Keith's promises of backing a newspaper empty, Franklin worked as a typesetter in a printer's shop in what is now the Church of St Bartholomew-the-Great in the Smithfield area of London. Following this, he returned to Philadelphia in 1726 with the help of Thomas Denham, a merchant who employed Franklin as clerk, shopkeeper, and bookkeeper in his business.

The members created a library initially assembled from their own books after Franklin wrote: A proposition was made by me that since our books were often referr'd to in our disquisitions upon the inquiries, it might be convenient for us to have them altogether where we met, that upon occasion they might be consulted; and by thus clubbing our books to a common library, we should, while we lik'd to keep them together, have each of us the advantage of using the books of all the other members, which would be nearly as beneficial as if each owned the whole.

Birthplace

Franklin conceived the idea of a subscription librarywhich would pool the funds of the members to buy books for all to read. This was the birth of the Library Company of Philadelphia: In 1732, Franklin hired the first American librarian, Louis Timothee.

The Library Company is now a great scholarly and research library. In 1728, Franklin had set up a printing house in partnership with Hugh Meredith ; the following year he became the publisher of a newspaper called The Pennsylvania Gazette. The Gazette gave Franklin a forum for agitation about a variety of local reforms and initiatives through printed essays and observations.

Over time, his commentary, and his adroit cultivation of a positive image as an industrious and intellectual young man, earned him a great deal of social respect. But even after Franklin had achieved fame as a scientist and statesman, he habitually signed his letters with the unpretentious 'B. In 1732, Ben Franklin published the first German-language newspaper in America — Die Philadelphische Zeitung — although it failed after only one year, because four other newly founded German papers quickly dominated the newspaper market.

Although Franklin apparently reconsidered shortly thereafter, and the phrases were omitted from all later printings of the pamphlet, his views may have played a role in his political defeat in 1764. In Benjamin Franklin's Journalism, Ralph Frasca argues he saw this as a service to God, because he understood moral virtue in terms of actions, thus, doing good provides a service to God. Despite his own moral lapses, Franklin saw himself as uniquely qualified to instruct Americans in morality.

He tried to influence American moral life through construction of a printing network based on a chain of partnerships from the Carolinas to New England. Franklin thereby invented the first newspaper chain. It was more than a business venture, for like many publishers since, he believed that the press had a public-service duty.

Franklin quickly did away with all this when he took over the Instructor and made it The Pennsylvania Gazette. The Gazette soon became Franklin's characteristic organ, which he freely used for satire, for the play of his wit, even for sheer excess of mischief or of fun. From the first, he had a way of adapting his models to his own uses. The series of essays called "The Busy-Body", which he wrote for Bradford's American Mercury in 1729, followed the general Addisonian form, already modified to suit homelier conditions.

The thrifty Patience, in her busy little shop, complaining of the useless visitors who waste her valuable time, is related to the ladies who address Mr. And a number of the fictitious characters, Ridentius, Eugenius, Cato, and Cretico, represent traditional 18th-century classicism. Even this Franklin could use for contemporary satire, since Cretico, the "sowre Philosopher", is evidently a portrait of Franklin's rival, Samuel Keimer.

Franklin was busy with a hundred matters outside of his printing office, and never seriously attempted to raise the mechanical standards of his trade. Nor did he a biography of benjamin franklin born in the city of boston mass properly edit or collate the chance medley of stale items that passed for news in the Gazette. His influence on the practical side of journalism was minimal. Undoubtedly his paper contributed to the broader culture that distinguished Pennsylvania from her neighbors before the Revolution.

Like many publishers, Franklin built up a book shop in his printing office; he took the opportunity to read new books before selling them. After the second editor died, his widow Elizabeth Timothy took over and made it a success, 1738—46. She was one of the colonial era's first woman printers.

Editor Peter Timothy avoided blandness and crude bias, and after 1765 increasingly took a patriotic stand in the growing crisis with Great Britain. He became Grand Master in 1734, indicating his rapid rise to prominence in Pennsylvania.

Franklin remained a Freemason for the rest of his life. At that time, Read's mother was wary of allowing her young daughter to marry Franklin, who was on his way to London at Governor Sir William Keith's request, and also because of his financial instability. Her own husband had recently died, and she declined Franklin's request to marry her daughter.

  • And water, though naturally a good conductor, will not conduct well when frozen into ice;
  • Among Benjamin's siblings were his older brother James and his younger sister Jane;
  • Attempts to convert the essays into poetry were made, and then Ben transmuted the output back into prose;
  • Title page for Poor Richard's almanac for 1739, written, printed, and sold by Benjamin Franklin;
  • To his loyal daughter Sally and her husband, Richard, he left most of his property on the condition that Richard free his slave named Bob.

Perhaps because of the circumstances of this delay, Deborah married a man named John Rodgers. This proved to be a regrettable decision. Rodgers shortly avoided his debts and prosecution by fleeing to Barbados with her dowryleaving her behind.

Rodgers's fate was unknown, and because of bigamy laws, Deborah was not free to remarry. Franklin established a common-law marriage with Deborah Read on September 1, 1730. They took in Franklin's recently acknowledged young illegitimate son William and raised him in their household. They had two children together.

Ben Franklin's Early Adventures in Boston

Their son, Francis Folger Franklinwas born in October 1732 and died of smallpox in 1736. Their daughter, Sarah "Sally" Franklinwas born in 1743 and grew up to marry Richard Bachehave seven children, and look after her father in his old age.

Deborah's fear of the sea meant that she never accompanied Franklin on any of his extended trips to Europe, and another possible reason why they spent so much time apart is that he may have blamed her for preventing their son Francis from being vaccinated against the disease that subsequently killed him. William Franklin William Franklin In 1730, 24-year-old Franklin publicly acknowledged the existence of his son William, who was deemed "illegitimate," as he was born out of wedlock, and raised him in his household.

  1. Dogood quoting Cato's Letters proclaim.
  2. The Library Company is now a great scholarly and research library.
  3. Her own husband had recently died, and she declined Franklin's request to marry her daughter. Following his death in 1790, he became so identified during the 19th century with the persona of his Autobiography and the Poor Richard maxims of his almanac—e.

His mother's identity is unknown. Beginning at about age 30, William studied law in London in the early 1760s. He fathered an illegitimate son, William Temple Franklinborn February 22, 1762. The boy's mother was never identified, and he was placed in foster care. Later in 1762, William married Elizabeth Downes, daughter of a planter from Barbados.

After William passed the bar, his father helped him gain an appointment in 1763 as the last Royal Governor of New Jersey. A LoyalistWilliam and his father eventually broke relations over their differences about the American Revolutionary War.

The elder Franklin could never accept William's position.

Navigation menu

Deposed in 1776 by the revolutionary government of New Jersey, William was arrested at his home in Perth Amboy at the Proprietary House and imprisoned for a time. The younger Franklin went to New York in 1782, which was still occupied by British troops. They initiated guerrilla forays into New Jerseysouthern Connecticutand New York counties north of the city. He settled in London, never to return to North America. In the preliminary peace talks in 1782 with Britain, ".

Benjamin Franklin insisted that loyalists who had borne arms against the United States would be excluded from this plea that they be given a general pardon. He was undoubtedly thinking of William Franklin. Franklin frequently wrote under pseudonyms. Although it was no secret that Franklin was the author, his Richard Saunders character repeatedly denied it. Wisdom in folk society meant the ability to provide an apt adage for any occasion, and Franklin's readers became well prepared.

He sold about ten thousand copies per year—it became an institution. Franklin's autobiographybegun in 1771 but published after his a biography of benjamin franklin born in the city of boston mass, has become one of the classics of the genre. Daylight saving time DST is often erroneously attributed to a 1784 satire that Franklin published anonymously. Social contributions and studies by Benjamin Franklin Franklin was a prodigious inventor. Among his many creations were the lightning rodglass harmonica a glass instrument, not to be confused with the metal harmonicaFranklin stovebifocal glasses and the flexible urinary catheter.

Franklin never patented his inventions; in his autobiography he wrote, ". The same proposal was made independently that same year by William Watson. Franklin was the first to label them as positive and negative respectively, [46] [47] and he was the first to discover the principle of conservation of charge.

He received honorary degrees from Harvard and Yale universities his first. Franklin advised Harvard University in its acquisition of new electrical laboratory apparatus after the complete loss of its original collection, in a fire which destroyed the original Harvard Hall in 1764.

This work led to the field becoming widely known. On June 15 Franklin may possibly have conducted his well-known kite experiment in Philadelphiasuccessfully extracting sparks from a cloud. Franklin described the experiment in the Pennsylvania Gazette on October 19, 1752, [53] [54] without mentioning that he himself had performed it.

Franklin was careful to stand on an insulator, keeping dry under a roof to avoid the danger of electric shock. Georg Wilhelm Richmann in Russiawere indeed electrocuted in performing lightning experiments during the months immediately following Franklin's experiment.

In his writings, Franklin indicates that he was aware of the dangers and offered alternative ways to demonstrate that lightning was electrical, as shown by his use of the concept of electrical ground. Franklin did not perform this experiment in the way that is often pictured in popular literature, flying the kite and waiting to be struck by lightning, as it would have been dangerous.