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A history of the begining of industrialization and its influence on the world

History of the United States Industrialization and reform 1870-1916 The industrial growth that began in the United States in the early 1800's continued steadily up to and through the American Civil War.

Still, by the end of the war, the typical American industry was small. Hand labour remained widespread, limiting the production capacity of industry. Most businesses served a small market and lacked the capital needed for business expansion.

  • After the Civil War, Americans in the South faced the task of rebuilding their war-torn society;
  • The percentage of children who lived past infancy rose significantly, leading to a larger workforce.

After the Civil War, however, American industry changed dramatically. Machines replaced hand labour as the main means of manufacturing, increasing the production capacity of industry tremendously.

A new nationwide network of railways distributed goods far and wide. Inventors developed new products the public wanted, and businesses made the products in large quantities. Investors and bankers supplied the huge amounts of money that business leaders needed to expand their operations. The industrial growth had major effects on American life. The new business activity centred on cities.

As a result, people moved to cities in record numbers, and the cities grew by leaps and bounds. The sharp contrast between the rich and the poor and other features of American life stirred widespread discontent. The discontent triggered new reform movements.

The industrial growth centred chiefly on the North. The war-torn South lagged behind the rest of the country economically. In the West, frontier life was ending. America's role in foreign affairs also changed during the late 1800's and early 1900's. The country built up its military strength and became a world power. The rise of big business The value of goods produced by American industry increased almost tenfold between 1870 and 1916.

Many interrelated developments contributed to this growth. The use of machines in manufacturing spread throughout American industry after the Civil War. With machines, workers could produce goods many times faster than they could by hand.

The new large manufacturing firms hired hundreds, or even thousands, of workers. Each worker was assigned a specific job in the production process. This system of organizing labourers, called the division of labour, also sped up production.

Development of new products. Inventors created, and business leaders produced and sold, a variety of new products.

The products included the typewriter 1867barbed wire 1874the telephone 1876the phonograph early form of record player 1877the electric light 1879and the petrol-engine car 1885. America's rich and varied natural resources played a key role in the rise of big business. The nation's abundant water supply helped power the industrial machines.

Forests provided timber for construction and wooden products. Miners took large quantities of coal and iron ore from the ground. Immigration plus natural growth caused the U. In the late 1800's, the American railway system became a nationwide transportation network. The total distance of all railway lines in operation in the United States soared from about 14,500 kilometres in 1850 to almost 320,000 kilometres in 1900.

A high point in railway development came in 1869, when workers laid tracks that joined the Central Pacific and Union Pacific railways near Ogden, Utah.

This event marked the completion of the world's first transcontinental railway system. The system linked the United States by rail from coast to coast. The new railways spurred economic growth. Mining companies used them to ship raw materials to factories over long distances quickly. Manufacturers distributed their finished products by rail to points throughout the country. The railways became highly profitable businesses for their owners.

Advances in communication provided a boost for the economy. Railways replaced such mail-delivery systems as the stagecoach. In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone. These developments, along with the telegraph, provided the quick communication that is vital to the smooth operation of big business.

  • Romanticism During the Industrial Revolution an intellectual and artistic hostility towards or an emotional retreat from the new industrialization developed;
  • Early reform efforts included movements to organize labourers and farmers;
  • Farmers founded the National Grange in 1867 and Farmers' Alliances during the 1870's and 1880's;
  • These groups helped force railways to lower their charges for hauling farm products and assisted the farmers in other ways.

The business boom triggered a sharp increase in investments in the stocks and bonds of corporations. As businesses prospered, people eager to share in the profits invested heavily. Their investments provided capital that companies needed to expand their operations.

New banks sprang up throughout the country. Banks helped finance the nation's economic growth by making loans to businesses.

History of the Industrial Revolution

Some bankers of the era assumed key positions in the American economy because of their ability to provide huge sums of capital. The South and the West The war-torn South. After the Civil War, Americans in the South faced the task of rebuilding their war-torn society. The South lagged behind the rest of the nation economically. Some industry developed in the region, but the South remained an agricultural area throughout the period of industrialization.

Many Southern farmers--both black and white--owned the land they worked. But in general, the land of these small, independent farmers was poor. The best land was given over to tenant farming--a system in which labourers farm the land and pay rent in money or crops to the owner. The tenant farming system had neither the virtues of the plantation system of pre-Civil War days nor of the independent owner system.

The tenant farmers lacked the incentive to improve land that was not their own, and the owners did not have full control over production. For these and other reasons, agriculture remained more backward in the South than elsewhere.

The end of the Western frontier. The long process of settling the United States from coast to coast drew to a close after the Civil War.

In 1862, Congress passed the Homestead Act, which offered public land to people free or at very low cost. Thousands of Americans and immigrants started farms in the West under the provisions of the act. After 1870, settlement became so widespread in the West that it was no longer possible to draw a continuous frontier line. The United States Census of 1890 officially recognized the fact that America's frontier had ended.

The settlement of the West brought an end to the American Indian way of life. Farmers occupied and fenced in much of the land. White people moving westward slaughtered buffalo herds on which Indians depended for survival.

  • But at the bottom of the economic ladder, a huge mass of city people lived in extreme poverty;
  • Also in 1898, the United States annexed Hawaii;
  • In addition, the first three presidents elected after 1900--Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson--supported certain reform laws;
  • Historians sometimes consider this social factor to be extremely important, along with the nature of the national economies involved;
  • The home is very large and was surrounded by a massive garden, the Cliffe Castle is now open to the public as a museum.

Some Indians retaliated against the whites by attacking wagon trains and homes. But, as in earlier days, the federal government sent soldiers to crush the Indian uprisings. In the end, the Indians were no match for the soldiers and their superior weapons. Over the years, the federal government pushed more and more Indians onto reservations.

Life during the industrial era The industrial boom had major effects on the lives of the American people. The availability of jobs in industries drew people from farms to cities in record numbers. In 1870, only about 25 per cent of the American people lived in urban areas. By 1916, the figure had reached almost 50 per cent. The lives of people in the cities contrasted sharply. A small percentage of them had enormous wealth and enjoyed lives of luxury.

Below them economically, the larger middle class lived comfortably. But at the bottom of the economic ladder, a huge mass of city people lived in extreme poverty. The business boom opened up many opportunities for financial gain.

The economic activity it generated enabled many people to establish successful businesses, expand existing ones, and profit from investments. Some business leaders and investors were able to amass huge fortunes.

The number of millionaires in the United States grew from perhaps about 20 in 1850 to more than 3,000 in 1900.

Other city people prospered enough to live lives of comfort, if not wealth. They included owners of small businesses, and such workers as factory and office managers. They became part of America's growing middle class.

The labourers who toiled in factories, mills, and mines did not share in the benefits of the economic growth. They usually worked at least 60 hours a week for an average pay of about 20 cents an hour, and had no fringe benefits. As the nation's population grew, so did the competition for jobs. The supply of workers outstripped the demand. The oversupply of workers led to high unemployment. In addition, depressions slowed the economy to a near standstill in 1873, 1884, 1893, and 1907.

The everyday life of the city poor was dismal and drab.

The poor lived crowded together in slums.