# A history of the creation of computer

Prehistory[ edit ] The earliest known tool for use in computation was the abacusdeveloped in the period between 2700—2300 BCE in Sumer. Panini used metarules, transformations and recursions. It was discovered in 1901 in the Antikythera wreck off the Greek island of Antikythera, between Kythera and Creteand has been dated to circa 100 BC.

In 1623 Wilhelm Schickard designed a calculating machine, but abandoned the project, when the prototype he had started building was destroyed by a fire in 1624. The analytical engine had expandable memory, an arithmetic unit, and logic processing capabilities able to interpret a programming language with loops and conditional branching.

Although never built, the design has been studied extensively and is understood to be Turing equivalent. The analytical engine would have had a memory capacity of less than 1 kilobyte of memory and a clock speed of less than 10 Hertz. In his system, the ones and zeros also represent true and false values or on and off states. But it took more than a century before George Boole published his Boolean algebra in 1854 with a complete system that allowed computational processes to be mathematically modeled.

The industrial revolution had driven forward the mechanization of many tasks, and this included weaving.

## When was the first computer invented?

Punched cards controlled Joseph Marie Jacquard 's loom in 1801, where a hole punched in the card indicated a binary one and an unpunched spot indicated a binary zero. Jacquard's loom was far from being a computer, but it did illustrate that machines could be driven by binary systems. They were usually under the lead of a physicist. Many thousands of computers were employed in commerce, government, and research establishments.

Most of these computers were women. The thesis states that a mathematical method is effective if it could be set out as a list of instructions able to be followed by a human clerk with paper and pencil, for as long as necessary, and without ingenuity or insight. They used machinery that represented continuous numeric quantities, like the angle of a shaft rotation or difference in electrical potential.

Digital machinery used difference engines or relays before the invention of faster memory devices. These computers were able to perform the calculations that were performed by the previous human clerks. Charles Babbage and Ada Lovelace Charles Babbage is often regarded as one of the first pioneers of computing. Beginning in the 1810s, Babbage had a vision of mechanically computing numbers and tables.

- The first laptop or portable computer The IBM 5100 is the first portable computer, which was released on September 1975;
- Funding for this code-breaking machine came from the Ultra project;
- A textile-weaving loom, it could also be called the first practical information-processing device.

Putting this into reality, Babbage designed a calculator to compute numbers up to 8 decimal points long. Continuing with the success of this idea, Babbage worked to develop a machine that could compute numbers with up to 20 decimal places.

By the 1830s, Babbage had devised a plan to develop a machine that could use punched cards to perform arithmetical operations. The machine would store numbers in memory units, and there would be a form of sequential control.

This means that one operation would be carried out before another in such a way that the machine would produce an answer and not fail.

During her work with Babbage, Ada Lovelace became a history of the creation of computer designer of the first computer algorithm, which had the ability to compute Bernoulli numbers.

In this theorem, he showed that there were limits to what could be proved and disproved within a formal system. The thesis claims that any calculation that is possible can be performed by an algorithm running on a computer, provided that sufficient time and storage space are available. This machine invented the principle of the modern computer and was the birthplace of the stored program concept that almost all modern day computers use.

If a Turing machine can complete the task, it is considered Turing computable or more commonly, Turing complete. Many people have acclaimed von Neumann as the "father of the computer" in a modern sense of the term but I am sure that he would never have made that mistake himself. He might well be called the midwife, perhaps, but he firmly emphasized to me, and to others I am sure, that the fundamental conception is owing to Turing.

Akira Nakashima and switching circuit theory[ edit ] Up to and during the 1930s, electrical engineers were able to build electronic circuits to solve mathematical and logic problems, but most did so in an ad hoc manner, lacking any theoretical rigor.

From 1934 to 1936, Nakashima published a series of papers showing that the two-valued Boolean algebrawhich he discovered independently he was unaware of George Boole 's work until 1938can describe the operation of switching circuits.

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Switching circuit theory provided the mathematical foundations and tools for digital system design in almost all areas of modern technology.

His thesis became the foundation of practical digital circuit design when it became widely known among the electrical engineering community during and after World War II. Atanasoff, a professor of physics and mathematics, and Clifford Berry, an engineering graduate student. In 1941, Konrad Zuse developed the world's first functional program-controlled computer, the Z3. In 1998, it was shown to be Turing-complete in principle.

## Thinking Machines: The Creation of the Computer

He founded one of the earliest computer businesses in 1941, producing the Z4which became the world's first commercial computer. This work is one of the theoretical foundations for many areas of study, including data compression and cryptography. Wiener also compared computationcomputing machinery, memory devices, and other cognitive similarities with his analysis of brain waves.

It was stuck in between the relays on the Harvard Mark II. Navy, who supposedly logged the "bug" on September 9, 1945, most other accounts conflict at least with these details.

According to these accounts, the actual date was September 9, 1947 when operators filed this 'incident' — along with the insect and the notation "First actual case of bug being found" see software bug for details. John von Neumann and Von Neumann architecture In 1946, a model for computer architecture was introduced and became known as Von Neumann architecture. Since 1950, the von Neumann model provided uniformity in subsequent computer designs.

The von Neumann architecture was considered innovative as it introduced an idea of allowing machine instructions and data to share memory space. In von Neumann machine design, the IPU passes addresses to memory, and memory, in turn, is routed either back to the IPU if an instruction is being fetched or to the ALU if data is being fetched.

This is in contrast to CISC, complex instruction set computinginstruction sets which have more instructions from which to choose. With von Neumann architecture, main memory along with the accumulator the register that holds the result of logical operations [35] are the two memories that are addressed.

Operations can be carried out as simple arithmetic these are performed by the ALU and include addition, subtraction, multiplication and divisionconditional a history of the creation of computer these are more commonly seen now as if statements or while loops.

### History of computing

The branches serve as go to statementsand logical moves between the different components of the machine, i. Von Neumann architecture accepts fractions and instructions as data types. Finally, as the von Neumann architecture is a simple one, its register management is also simple. The architecture uses a set of seven registers to manipulate and interpret fetched data and instructions.