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A history of united states immorality towards japanese and native americans

See Article History Alternative Title: Indian gaming includes a range of business operations, from full casino facilities with slot machines and Las Vegas -style high-stakes gambling to smaller facilities offering games such as bingolotteriesand video poker. However, tribal gaming operations must comply with the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 and other federal laws. History The first Indian casino was built in Florida by the Seminole tribe, which opened a successful high-stakes bingo parlour in 1979.

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Other indigenous nations quickly followed suit, and by 2000 more than 150 tribes in 24 states had opened casino or bingo operations on their reservations. The first years of the 21st century saw precipitous growth: Notably—and unlike gambling operations run by non-Indians—tribal casinos are required by law to contribute a percentage of their annual revenue to state-controlled trust funds. These funds are then distributed to local communities to offset costs related to the subsidiary effects of tribal gaming operations, such as the expansion or maintenance of transportation, electrical, or sewage systems and other forms of infrastructure; the need for increased traffic patrols; and treatment for gambling addiction.

Some of these funds are also distributed as assistance to tribes that do not have gaming operations. The prosperity of Indian gaming operations depends to a great extent on location; those near or in major urban areas can be very successful, while those in remote areas where many reservations are located tend to generate much less revenue. Although tribes with successful operations have been able to use gaming income to improve the general health, education, and cultural well-being of their members, many Indian casinos have not made significant profits.

Thus, the success of some operations on some reservations cannot be generalized to all casinos or all reservations. To the contrary, U.

Tribal sovereignty

Native Americans remain the most impoverished and underprivileged minority community in the United States. Indian gaming has been at the centre of political controversy since the late 1970s. In many cases the debate has revolved around the morality or immorality of gambling; this issue, of course, is not unique to Indian gaming in particular.

Controversies involving Indian gaming operations per se have generally focused instead on whether the unique legal status of tribes, which allows them the privilege of owning and operating such businesses, should be retained or discontinued; whether Indians have sufficient acumen or training to run such businesses; whether engaging in entrepreneurial capitalism inherently undercuts indigenous ethnic identities; and whether gaming is a desirable addition to a specific local economy.

  • Participation in gaming and other forms of corporate capitalism has enabled some Indians to enjoy levels of political, legal, and economic power that were unprecedented since the colonial period;
  • Such propositions have been thoroughly discredited, and some advocates of Indian gaming have countered that their opponents are simply uncomfortable with or resentful of Native American economic independence and the improvements it supports in housing, health care, and education whether on or off the reservation —and especially in political activities such as lobbying and contributing to electoral campaigns;
  • Supporters of Indian casinos emphasize that the gaming profits that rest upon such legal decisions have, for the first time since colonization, allowed some native communities to become economically independent and thereby to take positive steps toward self-determination, community building, and political empowerment;
  • Native American students enrolled at Carlisle Indian School in Carlisle, Pennsylvania in 1884 National Anthropological Archives While social reform movements seek to improve the moral health of a community and religious movements work to improve spiritual health, education movements operate with the belief that an informed citizenry is essential to the civic health of the American republic;
  • An interesting theory suggests the Piasa Bird may be related to ancient Japanese dragons.

Tribal sovereignty The unusual legal status of Native American tribes was determined by the U. Supreme Court in Cherokee Nation v.

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As a result of this decision, a preponderance of policy issues related to the regulation of Native American economics, politics, religion, education—and indeed all aspects of indigenous life—are ultimately overseen by the Federal Bureau of Indian Affairs and decided in the federal court system.

Most important in the context of gaming, the U. These compacts allow states to take a percentage of casino revenues, which may be between 10 and 25 percent of total profits. Although indigenous nations have lost most federal court battles, Indian gaming is one area in which the judiciary has generally found in favour of tribes. Supporters of Indian casinos emphasize that the gaming profits that rest upon such legal decisions have, for the first time since colonization, allowed some native communities to become economically independent and thereby to take positive steps toward self-determination, community building, and political empowerment.

By contrast, opponents believe that the unique legal status of tribes is unfair, unnecessary, or, in some cases, simply an undesirable artifact of judicial history.

Business acumen and fraud Another area of contention concerns the business savvy of Indians. Critics charge that tribal governments have been repeatedly defrauded by corrupt bureaucratsstaff, board members, consultants, and the like; according to the same critics, this has happened in large part because tribal members are inept or uneducated and tend to factionalize when dealing with controversy.

Such paternalistic arguments are sometimes augmented by invoking historical data that show casinos, restaurants, and other cash-based businesses to be particularly susceptible to embezzlement or to being co-opted by organized crime.

Proponents of Indian gaming agree that many tribes have been defrauded over the past several centuries but argue that such losses result from the activities of criminals and others of shady intent rather than from indigenous gullibility.

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They point out that many people were exploited by the Abramoff ring and that it was so deeply entwined with the federal government that nothing short of a major investigation would have exposed it. Indeed, officials from the House of Representatives, Department of the Interior, and White House subsequently served prison time for their roles in the Abramoff scandal, while Representative Tom DeLayHouse majority leader 2003—05resigned in its wake but admitted no culpability.

With such examples in mind, advocates for Indian gaming argue that, both legally and morally, native nations should be treated no differently than are state governments and private casino owners and hence should be allowed to profit from and risk capital in gambling in the same ways.

  • Education—from the free, uncensored exchange of ideas, to the artisan apprenticeship traditions, to the establishment of schools and universities—has played an important role in personal self-improvement, community uplift, and even cultural assimilation;
  • Native American legends tell this creature existed long before the pale faces arrived on their lands;
  • Indian gaming has been at the centre of political controversy since the late 1970s;
  • Indians from Miami said something similar;
  • Where these organizations sought institutional reforms to combat social ills, others found spiritual solutions for worldly problems.

Affect of gaming on ethnic identity A third area of controversy involves a debate regarding the constitution of credible ethnic identities. Some critics argue that Native Americans who profit from gaming either through profit sharing or gaming-related forms of employment will move off of reservations.

Such propositions have been thoroughly discredited, and some advocates of Indian gaming have countered that their opponents are simply uncomfortable with or resentful of Native American economic independence and the improvements it supports in housing, health care, and education whether on or off the reservation —and especially in political activities such as lobbying and contributing to electoral campaigns.

  1. The prosperity of Indian gaming operations depends to a great extent on location; those near or in major urban areas can be very successful, while those in remote areas where many reservations are located tend to generate much less revenue. Participation in gaming and other forms of corporate capitalism has enabled some Indians to enjoy levels of political, legal, and economic power that were unprecedented since the colonial period.
  2. Thus, the success of some operations on some reservations cannot be generalized to all casinos or all reservations.
  3. Critics charge that tribal governments have been repeatedly defrauded by corrupt bureaucrats , staff, board members, consultants, and the like; according to the same critics, this has happened in large part because tribal members are inept or uneducated and tend to factionalize when dealing with controversy. As the United States matured, its citizens have erected buildings, established cultural institutions, and created works of art that reflect their evolving beliefs and changing environments.
  4. Many of these cultural expressions have survived and serve as important reminders of the diverse beliefs and values that shaped the United States as we know it today. During the culture wars of the 1980s and 90s, artists that received federally funded grants and prizes like Andres Serrano and Robert Mapplethorpe had their work censured and pulled from displays.

Local and long-term effects The local impact of gaming operations is a fourth area of contention. In the non-Indian community, critics of specific operations or proposals for operations have often cited concerns about their impact on local infrastructure or social relations; such concerns are the primary cause of the aforementioned compact payments negotiated between tribes and states.

  • The Native America dragon came to the country a very long time ago;
  • They point out that many people were exploited by the Abramoff ring and that it was so deeply entwined with the federal government that nothing short of a major investigation would have exposed it;
  • Reseachers who spoke to Illini Indians learned that the Piasa Bird existed in this country many thousands of moons before the arrival of the pale faces.

Advocates of specific casinos or proposals generally argue that the positive outcomes they might engender can be so significant as to outweigh the potentially negative presence of casinos on reservations.

The issue is also debated within the pan-Indian community: Such divisions can exist even within specific tribes; cases have occurred in which individuals become involved in bitter disputes about tribal membership, particularly as it pertains to defining who has the right to determine whether a gaming operation will be built and, if so, who will share in any profits. Participation in gaming and other forms of corporate capitalism has enabled some Indians to enjoy levels of political, legal, and economic power that were unprecedented since the colonial period.