Essays academic service


An introduction to the importance of women in todays society

Free statement of participation on completion of these courses.

The role of women in rural development, food production and poverty eradication

Create your free OpenLearn profile Get the most out of OpenLearn Anyone can learn for free on OpenLearn, but signing-up will give you access to your personal learning profile and record of achievements that you earn while you study.

Anyone can learn for free on OpenLearn but creating an account lets you set up a personal learning profile which tracks your course progress and gives you access to Statements of Participation and digital badges you earn along the way.

Course content Course content Early modern Europe: Review the full course description and key learning outcomes and create an account and enrol if you want a free statement of participation.

Free course Early modern Europe: According to the French lawyer Charles Loyseau 1564—1627the division of people into different ranks was crucial to social stability: Because we cannot live together in equality of condition, it is necessary that some command and others obey … Sovereign lords command all within their state, addressing their commands to the great; the great [address their commands] to the middling, the middling to the small, and the small to the people … Thus by means of these multiple divisions and subdivisions, the several orders make up a general order, and the several Estates a state well ruled.

Loyseau, [1610] 1987, p. Activity 5 Social structure This should take around 5—10 minutes Here are two definitions of the structure of society. Read the two quotations then answer the following questions: How many groups or orders do Loyseau and Defoe identify? What is the basis for their division of society? Some are dedicated particularly to the service of God, others to protecting the state by their arms, others to nourishing and maintaining it through peaceful occupations.

These are our three orders or Estates General of France: The rich, who live very plentifully. The middle sort, who live well. The working trades, who labour hard but feel no want. The poor, that fare hard.

  • William, the eldest son, was put a covenanted servant unto Mr;
  • Below the middle order came the poor;
  • It mainly discusses and provides possible solutions relating to the various social issues of India;
  • The miserable, that really pinch and suffer want.

The miserable, that really pinch and suffer want. Defoe, [1709] 1971, p. Defoe, however, identifies seven groups based on their relative wealth and hence their living conditions. It oversimplifies the social order, as there were significant variations in wealth and status within each group. For example, the nobility ranged from monarchs, some of whom were extremely wealthy, with many castles and palaces, to minor nobles who owned only a small estate with a single large house.

It also leaves out merchants, traders and manufacturers: Groups within early modern society are usually described as ranks, groups or orders, but not classes.

  • When they had no work, they were reduced to begging for food or money;
  • He died and left her a widow, and now she is married again, but I know not what his name is;
  • Like, even while sitting miles away, one got the breaking news of Barack Obama winning the Presidential election;
  • He married a daughter of Mr;
  • Successful merchants could become immensely rich, but misfortune or mismanagement could result in bankruptcy;
  • Some are dedicated particularly to the service of God, others to protecting the state by their arms, others to nourishing and maintaining it through peaceful occupations.

While nobles dominated the social elite in the sixteenth century, owning much of the land and wealth, by the eighteenth century they were joined in the social elite by wealthy merchants and bankers. Some merchants were much richer than the nobles; for instance the Fugger family in Germany earned huge amounts from their mines and lent vast sums of money to the nobility.

Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest, Hungary. The image shows a wealthy Dutch family in their comfortable home, surrounded by valuable possessions. This group was made up of people with a wide range of occupations, such as smaller merchants, tradesmen, shopkeepers and prosperous farmers. It is hard to define the boundaries of the middle order, but members were recognisable by a group of characteristics. Members of the order employed staff to help in their businesses and households. They owned or rented a comfortable property, and expected to eat and drink well.

They were educated, had good manners, paid taxes, took on social responsibilities, such as contributing to charities to care for the poor, and filled many roles in local government. Below the middle order came the poor: Most poor people worked at some unskilled occupation — as market traders, labourers or laundrywomen, for example — but that work might be irregular. When they had no work, they were reduced to begging for food or money.

The poor lived in cramped and often squalid dwellings, ate simple food, and had little or no schooling and few resources. Certain types of people were more likely to end up poor, including the old, the young, unmarried mothers, and the sick or disabled, all of whom found it difficult to find regular employment or work that paid a good wage.

Society was also divided along gender lines. Early modern Europe was a patriarchal society, where men held greater power than women. Men dominated the worlds of trade and of politics, but women were far from powerless. As parents, they had power over their children. A number of queens ruled in their own right during the early modern period, including Elizabeth I of England and Queen Christina of Sweden 1626—1689, reigned 1632—1654.

Early modern society was distinguished by a greater measure of mobility up and down the social scale than in medieval times. Successful merchants could become immensely rich, but misfortune or mismanagement could result in bankruptcy. A hard-working journeyman might establish a successful business, invest wisely, and ensure that his sons went to university and his daughters married well.

Many peasant farmers could lose their access to common land, and be forced to become labourers or move to towns in the hope of finding work. Activity 6 Family life This should take around 20—30 minutes An introduction to the importance of women in todays society are some short extracts from primary source documents that reveal something of early modern family life. His diaries record the everyday details of his life, including the births of his children.

Josselin wrote in a style which is typical of the seventeenth century. You may find the grammar a bit odd and some words are spelt in an unfamiliar form. Josselin also uses some abbreviations to save time — not unlike modern texting! Reading historical texts is a skill so do try to work out what is being said. Often saying aloud exactly what you see can help. Read the following extract from The Diary of the Rev. Ralph Josselin 1616—1683, then answer the following questions: What does he describe?

What is his attitude to the arrival of children? God blessed my wife to bee a nurse [Was able to breastfeed the baby], and our child thrived, and was even then a pleasant comfort to us: This is probably because men were not expected to be present at the birth itself: Josselin spends a lot of space expressing his thanks to God for the safe delivery of children, and clearly sees that God rather than human agency ultimately determines whether children live or die.

Most of the material describes life in the late seventeenth century. Then answer the following questions: What does this document suggest about the importance of marriage, and attitudes to marriage, in the seventeenth century?

Early modern Europe: an introduction

What does it suggest about businesses? Francis Watkins was married after the wars in England. He marled [fertilised] several pieces, and got abundance of corn. He purchased lands in Tylley Park, and certainly, if he had lived, he had been an exceeding rich man. His wife was provident and sparing, even to a fault; and, therefore, he could not keep so good a house as his father did, which was no small trouble to him.

He died and left five small children behind him; viz three sons and two daughters. His widow afterwards married with Mr. Charles Dimock, a younger brother of that ancient family, of the Dimocks of Willeton. He lived but few years with her before he died.

She had no child by him, and she got nothing, but rather lost by this marriage. She married a third husband, his name was John Cotton, an ancient bachelor.

  • He was a fair and good-humoured man;
  • Successful merchants could become immensely rich, but misfortune or mismanagement could result in bankruptcy;
  • It is one of the most powerful tools of communication in the developing countries, as well as in the developed countries.

He was son and heir of Richard Cotton, of Haston. She got well by this marriage, which was helpful to her children. She had no child by him, and he died before her. She was much to be commended for giving her children good education, and put every one of them in a good condition to live.

Mary, the youngest daughter, was married to Mr. He was a fair and good-humoured man. He died and left her a widow, and now she is married again, but I know not what his name is.

  1. Media is present all around us. The image shows a wealthy Dutch family in their comfortable home, surrounded by valuable possessions.
  2. Groups within early modern society are usually described as ranks, groups or orders, but not classes. Hence, radio forms another major platform that helps in reaching out the rural masses, especially creating awareness regarding government policies.
  3. What does he describe?

Elizabeth, the eldest, was married to John Joyce, who lives at the lodge in Kenwicke Park. John, the youngest son, was set apprentice to a grocer or merchant in Bristol, and was set up but broke; and, [[p. Francis the second son, was a grocer in Shrewsbury, and was set up in a good condition. He married a daughter of Mr. Collins Woolrich, an apothecary, and one of the senior aldermen of Shrewsbury, and had a good fortune with her; but he trusting out goods too rashly broke. William, the eldest son, was put a covenanted servant unto Mr.

John Edwards, one of the ablest attorneys at law in this county. At expiration of his term, he married Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Mr.

The role of Women in today's society.

William Watkins is now 1701 owner of this farm, and very happy in that it hath pleased God to give him such skill, care, and industry in good husbandry as his grandfather and father had, for he is not inferior to either of them therein. He is also happy in a prudent, provident and discreet wife who is every way suitable for such a husband.

They live very lovingly together, very loving to their neighbours, and very well beloved by their neighbours, and they are both happy in that it hath pleased God in token of his love to them, and their mutual love one to another to bless them with many comely and witty children. This is not unusual for the period.