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An overview of gambling and its effects in our cultural lives

Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first cross-cultural comparison of women with GD from two distinct countries. Important demographic differences were observed between the two samples. Brazilian women with GD were more likely to have a current partner, to self-report their race as non-Caucasian, and to report lower levels of education. Previous studies including both men and women found similar differences between gamblers in Brazil and the United States, regardless of gender.

Also, these findings seem to support the notion that education level is an important consideration when assessing the efficacy of social and psychological interventions for GD. This issue is particularly important for clinicians recommending cognitive behavioral therapy CBTwhich is one of the most well-supported treatments for GD.

Another notable finding is that the Brazilian sample started gambling more than six years later than the U.

Our gambling culture

This difference may be due to the large availability of gambling opportunities in the United States, while legal gambling in Brazil is restricted. This is important since chasing is one of the few observable symptoms of GD, and it can be detected early in the course of GD. Due to the rapid progression from recreational gambling to GD amongst female gamblers, 8 early interventions are critical. Given this concern, the higher rates of chasing behavior in Brazilian females may help with early diagnosis and prevent progression to GD.

As expected, electronic gaming machines video-bingo, keno, etc. This trend is particularly worrisome given the possibly greater addictive potential of these games. The lower interest in card games has not been described in previous general comparisons between Brazil and the United States.

This may suggest that the higher prevalence of card games is a unique cross-cultural difference between women from Brazil and the United States. In addition to differences in gambling behavior, this analysis found a higher lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder amongst female Brazilian gamblers. However, in both samples we found a lower prevalence of major depressive disorder than that reported by several previous studies.

This difference has not been described in epidemiological studies looking at the general population in each country: A possible explanation is the lower gender equality in Brazil when compared to the United States 22 — the socioeconomic gap between Brazilian and American women is bigger than the socioeconomic gap between the men in these two countries.

As socioeconomic status is inversely related not only to the rates of major depression but also to severity of depressive symptoms, 23 the lower sociocultural status of Brazilian women may mediate this difference. The present study had several limitations. First, the study used treatment-seeking subjects, which limits generalizations.

Also, the possibility of selection bias may not be excluded. In addition, this cross-sectional study used retrospective data, which may translate into recall bias, potentially limiting the accuracy of the information collected.

Despite these limitations, the present analysis revealed several significant differences between Brazilian and American women with GD. The discrepancies may be classified into two groups. The first group consists of differences that appear to be associated with more diffuse sociocultural aspects, rather than differences between women specifically, especially educational level, later onset of recreational gambling, and later onset of GD among Brazilian female gamblers.

This type of finding had been previously reported in studies comparing male and female gamblers from Brazil and the United States. Highlights include higher chasing rates, lower interest in card games and higher lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder in Brazilian women with GD.

  1. This difference has not been described in epidemiological studies looking at the general population in each country. This is important since chasing is one of the few observable symptoms of GD, and it can be detected early in the course of GD.
  2. Prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in treatment-seeking problem gamblers. August 10, 2015 Correspondence.
  3. This may suggest that the higher prevalence of card games is a unique cross-cultural difference between women from Brazil and the United States.
  4. August 10, 2015 Correspondence. The lower interest in card games has not been described in previous general comparisons between Brazil and the United States.

The present findings warrant the development of further general cross-cultural research on GD, particularly studies investigating how gender mediates differences. Finally, the differences noted in this analysis suggest that results from predominantly Anglo-Saxon samples may not be applicable to all world populations. The other authors report no conflicts of interest. Total global gambling market gross win from 2003 to 2015 in billion euros [Internet]. World Development Indicators database.

Gross domestic product 2010 [Internet]. American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013. Female pathological gamblers -- A critical review of the clinical findings. Int J Ment Health Addict. Sex differences among treatment-seeking adult pathologic gamblers. Gender differences in gambling progression. Gambling disorder in older adults: Preliminary validity and reliability testing of a structured clinical interview for pathological gambling.

Subtypes of pathological gambling with concurrent illegal behaviors. Psychometric properties of the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale. Alcohol Clin Exp Res.

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Chasing losses in online poker and casino games: Characteristics and game play of Internet gamblers at risk of disordered gambling. The importance of cross-cultural research in addictions. Aust N Z J Psychiatry.

Prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in treatment-seeking problem gamblers: Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005;62: Healthcare interventions for depression in low socioeconomic status populations: April 2, 2015; Accepted: August 10, 2015 Correspondence: Gustavo Costa Medeiros, Rua Dr.