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An overview of the influence of mass media in the united states politics

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They typically copied any news that was received from other newspapers, or from the London press. The editors discovered they could criticize the local governor and gain a bigger audience; the governor discovered he could shut down the newspapers. The most dramatic confrontation came in New York in 1734, where the governor brought John Peter Zenger to trial for criminal libel after his paper published some satirical attacks.

Zenger's lawyers argued that truth was a defense against libel and the jury acquitted Zenger, who became the iconic American hero for freedom of the press. The result was an emerging tension between the media and the government. The illiterates often could hear newspapers read aloud at local taverns. By the mid-1760s, there were 24 weekly newspapers in the 13 colonies only New Jersey was lacking oneand the satirical attack on government became common practice in American newspapers.

  1. The new social media, such as Facebook and Twitter, made use first of the personal computer and the Internet, and after 2010 of the smart phones to connect hundreds of millions of people, especially those under age 35.
  2. A seminal book that explores the routines that occur in newsrooms.
  3. The field of political media effects is interdisciplinary and includes political scientists, sociologists, psychologists, communication scholars, economists, anthropologists, and others. However, the British controlled important cities for varying periods of time, including New York City, 1776 to 1783.
  4. After 1900, William Randolph Hearst , Joseph Pulitzer and other big city politician-publishers discovered they could make far more profit through advertising, at so many dollars per thousand readers.

Benjamin Franklinalready famous as a printer in Philadelphia published one of the first editorial cartoons " Join, or Die " calling on the colonies to join together to defeat the French.

By reprinting news originating in other papers, colonial printers created a private network for evaluating and disseminating news for the whole colonial world. Franklin took the lead, and eventually had two dozen newspapers in his network.

However, the British controlled important cities for varying periods of time, including New York City, 1776 to 1783. They sponsored a Loyalist press that vanished in 1783.

First Party System Federalist poster about 1800. Washington in heaven tells partisans to keep the pillars of Federalism, Republicanism and Democracy With the formation of the first two political parties in the 1790s, Both parties set up national networks of newspapers to provide a flow of partisan news and information for their supporters. The newspapers also printed pamphlets, flyers, and ballots that voters could simply drop in the ballot box.

  • Thanks to Hoe's invention of high-speed rotary presses for city papers, and free postage for rural sheets, newspapers proliferated;
  • It was expensive, however, so fund-raising became more and more important in winning campaigns;
  • Thanks to Hoe's invention of high-speed rotary presses for city papers, and free postage for rural sheets, newspapers proliferated;
  • By 2008, politicians and interest groups were experimenting with systematic use of social media to spread their message among much larger audiences than they had previously reached;
  • Special Interest newspapers were also on the rise during this period with many different groups pushing their agenda through newspapers and other forms of media.

By 1796, both parties had a national network of newspapers, which attacked each other vehemently. The Federalist and Republican newspapers of the 1790s traded vicious barbs against their enemies.

Nationalism was a high priority, and the editors fostered an intellectual nationalism typified by the Federalist effort to stimulate a national literary culture through their clubs and publications in New York and Philadelphia, and through Federalist Noah Webster 's efforts to simplify and Americanize the language.

The fourth Act made it a federal crime to publish "any false, scandalous, or malicious writing or writings against the Government of the United States, with intent to defame. Or to bring them. The act expired in 1801. Some editors were the key political players in their states, and most of them filled their papers with useful information on rallies and speeches and candidates, as well as the text of major speeches and campaign platforms.

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Third Party System Newspapers continued their role as the main internal communication system for the Army-style campaigns of the era. The goal was not to convince independents, who are few in number, but to rally all the loyal party members to the polls by making them enthusiastic about the party's platform, and apprehensive about the enemy. Nearly all weekly and daily papers were party organs until the early 20th century. Thanks to Hoe's invention of high-speed rotary presses for city papers, and free postage for rural sheets, newspapers proliferated.

In 1850, the Census counted 1,630 party newspapers with a circulation of about one per voterand only 83 "independent" papers. The party line was behind every line of news copy, not to mention the authoritative editorials, which exposed the 'stupidity' of the enemy and the 'triumphs' of the party in every issue.

Editors were senior party leaders, and often were rewarded with lucrative postmasterships. After 1900, William Randolph HearstJoseph Pulitzer and other big city politician-publishers discovered they could make far more profit through advertising, at so many dollars per thousand readers. By becoming non-partisan they expanded their base to include the opposition party and the fast-growing number of consumers who read the ads but were less and less interested in politics.

  • One classic example of this work is Gans 1979;
  • Lincoln Steffens went after corruption in big cities.

There was less and less political news after 1900, apparently because citizens became more apathetic, and shared their partisan loyalties with the new professional sports teams that attracted larger and larger audiences. The number of English-language newspapers had nearly tripled during this time.

Technology had a hand to do with this because of faster printing presses, and more efficient transportation. Special Interest newspapers were also on the rise during this period with many different groups pushing their agenda through newspapers and other forms of media. There even came a time that there was up to nine publications in the major cities such as Chicago, Boston, and New York which in turn created fierce competition. Competition caused these publications to lower their prices to just a penny just to stay afloat.

Thanks to the rapid expansion of national advertising, the cover price fell sharply to about 10 cents. They were journalists in the Progressive Era 1890s-1920s who wrote for popular magazines to expose social and political sins and shortcomings.

They relied on their own investigative journalism reporting; muckrakers often worked to expose social ills and corporate and political corruption. Muckraking magazines—notably McClure's —took on corporate monopolies and crooked political machines while raising public awareness of chronic urban poverty, unsafe working conditions, and social issues like child labor.

These Journalists were nicknamed muckrakers by Theodore Roosevelt because he complained they were being disruptive by raking up the muck. Lincoln Steffens went after corruption in big cities. Ida Tarbell attacked John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company. Most of the muckrakers wrote nonfiction, but fictional exposes often had a major impact as well, such as those by Upton Sinclair. He is best known for exposing the corrupt meatpacking industry and the horrific working conditions of men working in these factories and the contamination in the meat.

Fifth Party System and New Deal Coalition Most of the major newspapers in the larger cities were owned by conservative publishers and they turned hostile to liberal President Franklin D Roosevelt by 1934 or so, including major chains run by William Randolph Hearst.

Mass media and American politics

Roosevelt turned to radio, where he could reach more listeners more directly. During previous election campaignsthe parties sponsored nationwide broadcasts of major speeches. Roosevelt, however, gave intimate talks, person-to-person, as if he were in the same room sitting next to the fireplace. His rhetorical technique was extraordinarily effective. However, it proved very hard to duplicate. Young Ronald Reaganbeginning a career in as a radio broadcaster and Hollywood star, was one of the few to match the right tone, nuance, and intimacy that Roosevelt had introduced.

However radio presented the new issue, for the government control the airwaves and licensed them. The Federal Communications Commission ruled in the "Mayflower decision" in 1941 against the broadcasting of any editorial opinion, although political parties could still purchase airtime for their own speeches and programs. This policy was replaced in 1949 by the " Fairness Doctrine " which allowed editorials, if opposing views were given equal time. Party loyalties had weakened and there was a rapid growth in the number of independents.

As a result candidates Paid less attention to rallying diehard supporters and instead appealed to independent-minded voters.

  1. Recent technical innovations have made possible more advanced divisions and subdivisions of the electorate.
  2. One classic example of this work is Gans 1979. Nearly all weekly and daily papers were party organs until the early 20th century.
  3. By 2008, politicians and interest groups were experimenting with systematic use of social media to spread their message among much larger audiences than they had previously reached. The most dramatic confrontation came in New York in 1734, where the governor brought John Peter Zenger to trial for criminal libel after his paper published some satirical attacks.
  4. At first the parties paid for long-winded half-hour or hour long speeches.
  5. At first the parties paid for long-winded half-hour or hour long speeches.

They adopted television advertising techniques as their primary campaign device. At first the parties paid for long-winded half-hour or hour long speeches. By the 1960s, they discovered that the 30-second or one-minute commercial, repeated over and over again, was the most effective technique. It was expensive, however, so fund-raising became more and more important in winning campaigns. Radio, already overwhelmed by television, transformed itself into a niche service.

It developed an important political dimension based on Talk radio. Television survived with a much reduced audience, but remained the number one advertising medium for election campaigns. Newspapers were in desperate trouble; most afternoon papers closed, and most morning papers barely survived, as the Internet undermined both their advertising and their news reporting. The new social media, such as Facebook and Twitter, made use first of the personal computer and the Internet, and after 2010 of the smart phones to connect hundreds of millions of people, especially those under age 35.

By 2008, politicians and interest groups were experimenting with systematic use of social media to spread their message among much larger audiences than they had previously reached. Recent technical innovations have made possible more advanced divisions and subdivisions of the electorate. Most important, Facebook can now deliver video ads to small, highly targeted subsets. Television, by contrast, shows the same commercials to all viewers, and so cannot be precisely tailored.

  • They were journalists in the Progressive Era 1890s-1920s who wrote for popular magazines to expose social and political sins and shortcomings;
  • As a result candidates Paid less attention to rallying diehard supporters and instead appealed to independent-minded voters;
  • Some editors were the key political players in their states, and most of them filled their papers with useful information on rallies and speeches and candidates, as well as the text of major speeches and campaign platforms;
  • Thanks to Hoe's invention of high-speed rotary presses for city papers, and free postage for rural sheets, newspapers proliferated;
  • Emmers-Sommer and Allen 1999 and Nelson, et al.