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Black hole a region of space time

Black Holes: Facts, Theory & Definition

Space, 20 Mar - 2018Posted by: Verma, Department of Physics, S. Black holes are among the strangest things in the universe. They are massive objects —collections of mass — with gravity so strong that nothing can escape, not even light.

Because of the relationship between mass and gravity, this means they have an extremely powerful gravitational force. Black holes are the only objects in the Universe that can trap light by sheer gravitational force. Scientists believe they are formed when the corpse of a massive star collapses in on itself, becoming so dense that it warps the fabric of space and time. And any matter that crosses their event horizons, also known as the point of no return, spirals helplessly towards an unknown fate.

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The massive gravitational influence of a black hole distorts space and time in the near neighborhood. The closer we get to a black hole, the slower time runs.

Material that gets too close to a black hole gets sucked in and can never escape. Material spirals in to a black hole through an accretion disk — a disk of gas, dust, stars and planets that fall into orbit the black hole. This is the region where the gravity of the black hole overcomes the momentum of material spinning around it in the accretion disk.

Black Holes

Once something crosses the event horizon, it is lost to the pull of the black hole. Black holes were first proposed to exist in the 18th century, but remained a mathematical curiosity until the first candidate black hole was found in 1964 and was called Cygnus X-1, an x-ray source in the constellation Cygnus. Despite decades of research, these monstrous cosmological phenomena remain shrouded in mystery.

There are three types: Some fascinating facts about black holes are as: Formation black hole a region of space time a black hole: Scientists think the smallest black holes formed when the universe began.

When this happens, it causes a supernova. A supernova is an exploding star that blasts part of the star into space. Scientists think supermassive black holes were made at the same time as the galaxy they are in. A black hole is formed when a large star starts running out of fuel and begins to collapse under its own gravity.

The only difference between a black hole and our Sun is that the centre of a black hole is made of extremely dense material, which gives the black hole a strong gravitational field.

It's that gravitational field that can trap everything, including light, which is why we can't see black holes. We could theoretically turn anything into a black hole. If we shrunk our Sun down to a size of only 3.

We could apply the same theory to Earth or to our own body. But in reality, we only know of one way that can produce a black hole: A black hole is a place in space where gravity pulls so much that even light cannot get out. The gravity is so strong because matter has been squeezed into a tiny space.

This can happen when a star is dying. Black hole is said to be formed when a large star caved in and black hole pulls matter from blue star beside it. Types of black holes: Black holes can be big or small. Scientists think the smallest black holes are as small as just one atom.

  1. It has a mass equal to about 4 million suns and would fit inside a very large ball that could hold a few million Earths. We would literally be pulled apart by the difference, as cruelly as if we were placed on a medieval torture rack that stretched our feet from our heads.
  2. Because no light can get out, people can't see black holes. Eventually the nuclear fuel will be spent and the gases will start to cool.
  3. As they reach the singularity, objects somehow leave the stage for more information about singularities, see the spotlight text Spacetime singularities. If you trace an object's path from the bottom upward, you are tracing its progress in time.
  4. In a black hole, it is otherwise.
  5. However there are significant differences between them. Earth and the other planets would orbit the black hole as they orbit the sun now.

These black holes are very tiny but have the mass of a large mountain. Mass is the amount of matter, or "stuff," in an object. Another kind of black hole is called "stellar. The largest black holes black hole a region of space time called "supermassive. It has a mass equal to about 4 million suns and would fit inside a very large ball that could hold a few million Earths.

Life cycle of black holes: As long as there is something nearby for a black hole to absorb—interstellar dust, gas, nearby stars or other black holes—it will continue growing and thriving. Stephen Hawking believes that black holes that are rotating, like most, should always be creating and shooting out particles.

If the black hole has nothing to feed on, this process of shooting out particles would cause the black hole to shrink and eventually disappear. This surprising discovery was first predicted by Stephen Hawking in 1974. The phenomenon is called Hawking radiation, after the famous physicist. This is why Hawking radiation is also known as black hole evaporation. There is a telescope currently looking for evidence of this, and scientists are also curious to see if they can observe the process using the Large Hadron Collider, which is the largest machine in the world.

Scientists use it to cause particles to smash together at very high speeds. Einstein and black holes: Einstein didn't discover the existence of black holes — though his theory of relativity does predict their formation.

Knowing a Black Hole

Instead, Karl Schwarzschild was the first to use Einstein's revolutionary equations and show that black holes could indeed form. He accomplished this the same year that Einstein released his theory of general relativity in 1915. From Schwarzschild's work came a term called the Schwarzschild radius, a measurement of how small we have to compress any object to create a black hole.

Long before this, British polymath John Michell predicted the existence of 'dark stars' so massive or so compressed that they could possess gravitational pulls so strong not even light could escape; black holes didn't get their universal name until 1967.

To see a black hole: Because no light can get out, people can't see black holes. Space telescopes with special tools can help find black holes. The special tools can see how stars that are very close to black holes act differently than other stars. When a black hole and a star are close together, high-energy light is made.

This kind of light cannot be seen with human eyes.

Stable and Unstable Systems

Scientists use satellites and telescopes in space to see the high-energy light. Black holes do not suck: Black holes look like they're sucking in matter from all around, but that's a common misconception. Some think that black holes are like cosmic vacuums that suck in the space around them when, in fact, black holes are like any other object in space, albeit with a very strong gravitational field. If we replace the Sun with a black hole of equal mass, Earth would not get sucked in — it would continue orbiting the black hole as it orbits the Sun, today.

Companion stars shed some of their mass in the form of stellar wind, and the material in that wind then falls into the grip black hole a region of space time a black hole. Spaghettification with black holes: Black holes have this incredible ability to literally stretch us into a long spaghetti-like strand and the phenomenon is called 'spaghettification'.

The way it works has to do with how gravity behaves over distance. Right now, our feet are closer to the centre of Earth and are therefore more strongly attracted than our head.

Under extreme gravity, say, near a black hole, that difference in attraction will actually start working against us. As our feet begin to get stretched by gravity's pull, they will become increasingly more attracted as they inch closer to the centre of the black hole.

The closer they get, the faster they move. But the top half of our body is farther away and so is not moving toward the centre as fast. A very simplified version of how this works is that our Universe today, when we look at the numbers, has some extremely convenient conditions that came together to create life.

If you tweaked these conditions by even a miniscule amount, then we wouldn't be here. Black holes as energy sources: Black holes can generate energy more efficiently than our Sun. The way this works has to do with the disk of material that orbits around a black hole.

The material that is nearest to the fringe of black hole a region of space time event horizon on the inner edge of the disk will orbit much more quickly than material at the very outer edge of the disk.

This is because the gravitational pull is stronger near the event horizon. Because the material is orbiting and moving so rapidly, it heats up to billions of degrees Fahrenheit, which has the ability to transform mass from the material into energy in a form called blackbody radiation.

To compare, nuclear fusion converts about 0. The condition around a black hole converts 10 percent of mass into energy. The first black hole discovered: Nearby is a blue supergiant star that is about 20 times more massive than the Sun, which is bleeding due to the black hole and creating X-ray emissions. The nearest black hole: An erroneous measurement of V4641 Sagitarii led to a slew of news reports a few years back saying that the nearest black hole to Earth is astoundingly close, just 1,600 light-years away.

Not close enough to be considered dangerous, but way closer than thought. Further research, however, shows that the black hole is likely further away than that. What happens if somebody falls into a black hole?

Some people believe these objects are a sort of wormhole to other parts of the Universe, making faster-than-light travel possible. Anything is possible since we still have a lot to figure out about physics.

  • The closer they get, the faster they move;
  • This is because the gravitational pull is stronger near the event horizon;
  • Stars radiate and constantly lose the energy that sustains the high temperature;
  • Some think that black holes are like cosmic vacuums that suck in the space around them when, in fact, black holes are like any other object in space, albeit with a very strong gravitational field.

Since we do not yet have a theory that reliably unifies general relativity with quantum mechanics, we do not know of the entire zoo of possible space-time structures that could accommodate wormholes. It is impossible to stand still in this region. A spinning black hole is more like a whirlpool than a pothole.