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Compare and contrast smokers smoker vs non smoker

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background It is well documented that cigarette smoking has negative impacts on body health, as well as social health, economy, culture, etc.

Nowadays, there is a large body of evidence that smoking is the cause of numerous life-threatening diseases like cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases along with different kinds of cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the physical fitness of smokers and non smokers. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 64 non-sportsmen 34 non-smokers and 30 smokers aging 19-27 years. Both groups were matched for age, weight, height and body mass index BMI.

The smokers used cigarettes at least 5 cigarettes a day for 2 years. None of them had a musculoskeletal disease. We used a questionnaire and physical fitness tests for data gathering. The tests were used to measure muscle strength, endurance, speed, agility and flexibility in both groups.

Conclusion According to these compare and contrast smokers smoker vs non smoker, the smokers were less powerful than nonsmokers. In addition, physical activity skills in young smokers were decreased. Therefore, smoking will cause a gradual loss of physical strength and active personal and social power. Tobacco, Physical fitness, Muscle Introduction The health hazards of tobacco use are well-documented. Despite this knowledge and the warnings given in the media and press, the number of smokers is escalating day by day.

The population of smokers is estimated to be about one billion and one hundred million people worldwide; two-thirds of which live in developing countries. According to Iran's Ministry of Health, there are over one million smokers in the country. They consume 50 billion cigarettes every year.

Which Twin Smokes?

Increasing cigarette consumption, particularly among young people, has become a major problem in our society. Compare and contrast smokers smoker vs non smoker, it is predicted that in the next 20 years, 7 out of every 10 people who die of smoking-related diseases would be from the low- or middle-income countries around the world.

It would finally lead to diseases such compare and contrast smokers smoker vs non smoker cancer as well as increased mortality. A review of the prevalence of musculoskeletal and muscular pain among the smokers showed that the muscles of the body are also threatened by smoking due to the mechanism of muscle contraction activities. Most families have a negligible view on the recreational use of tobacco by young people. According to the above mentioned subjects, this study is going to investigate the disadvantages of smoking among young people's motion activities in the community.

It also reviews the muscular function in different groups of people, those who have a younger body and less duration of smoking. Finally, the research intends to study the physical activity skills in young smokers comparing to non-smokers. Methods This study was conducted on 64 male students aging 19 to 27 years in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences 34 non-smokers and 30 smokersIran. The subjects were selected by simple sampling and were matched for age, height, weight, and obesity index.

The smokers had a history of consuming at least 5 cigarettes a day for at least 2 years. All samples were free of diseases affecting the nervous and muscular systems and did not practice any sports. Data collection was done through a questionnaire and physical standardized tests in order to measure strength, endurance, speed, agility and flexibility of muscles. The questionnaire contained information regarding age, height, weight, duration of cigarette smoking and the number of cigarettes used per day.

The physical examinations were conducted as follows: A Curl-up and sit-up tests to assess abdominal muscle strength: In this examination the person lay on his back so that the distance from the heel to hip is about 30 cm. The knees were bent at 90 degrees while the feet were on the ground and the hands were placed constantly behind the ears.

The subject's legs were held by the examiner while the subject did the curl-up and sit-up tests bringing the elbows to the knees for one minute.

The correct actions were recorded. The case took the bar with both hands and ready for flying while opening the hands up to the shoulder width with his body completely flat and motionless. The legs were not in contact with the ground.

He had to try to bring the chin to the bar by using his hands and then return to the first state. The numbers of repeated movements were considered as points. The case had to stand behind the start line with his legs separated to the shoulder width.

His legs were slightly bent at the knee joints and the hands performed a motion of sweeping. Then he did a long jump and after landing, the closest point of the body to the jumping start line was measured. The case could jump up to three times and the best jump was recorded. In this test, the time the case spent for running a distance of 45 meters was considered recorded. The subject stood behind the start line with two pieces of wood being placed in 9 meters away from him.

Then he began running with a sign, picked up one piece of wood, returned to the start line, put the piece of wood behind the line, ran again, took the second piece, and passed the start line quickly.

The time of the whole process was recorded. The subject sat on the ground with straight legs. He performed the motion of tests for 2 times and moved his hands toward the toes as much as possible and kept himself in this position for a few seconds. The relevant point in the third time was recorded by the flexible ruler. Results The mean age of smokers 21.

The smokers had the habit of smoking for 2 to 6 years 3. The mean weight was 66. The mean height of smokers and non-smokers were 175. The average numbers of times that non-smokers and smokers could go over the bar were statistically different 6. Likewise, a significant difference was seen in jumping results the smokers 206.

However, no significant difference was observed in abdominal muscle endurance in the two groups of smokers and non-smokers 35. The average times smokers and non-smokers ran the distance of 45 meters were significantly different 6. In addition, the results of the agility test were also different among smokers and non-smokers 10.

The flexibility of smokers and nonsmokers were not significantly different 28. Discussion Muscle strength measurement in the shoulder belt and the lower limb showed a significant difference between smokers and non-smokers, i.

The results of the present study were similar to the some other researches; Orlander et al. Therefore, another study on older smokers with longer time of cigarette smoking is suggested. In the study of muscle flexibility among the smokers and non-smokers, it was observed that the smokers had more muscular flexibility than the non-smokers but the difference was not statistically significant.

On the contrary, Kumar et al. Similar to Orlander et al.

  1. There are more former smokers 48 million than current smokers 45 million in the US.
  2. It would finally lead to diseases such as cancer as well as increased mortality. Of course, giving up any addiction is difficult, but quitting smoking is possible.
  3. These two factors together lead to early aging signs around the mouth.

However, Weisman et al. Therefore, further research in this field is necessary to investigate the effects of smoking on different systems of muscle contractions and the use of devices such as electromyography EMG to more accurately determine the results.

Based on the results obtained from this study, it can be concluded that body muscles are among the organs that could be threatened by smoking. The damage will cause the gradual loss of physical strength and reduction of active personal and social power which in turn result in wasting useful hours of daily work and damaging the economy of the society.

Acknowledgments This research, which resulted from a student thesis, was financially supported by Vice-Chancellery for Research, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.

Difference between Smokers and Non-Smokers

The authors gratefully acknowledge the Deputy of Research and all of the students who have helped us to collect the results.

Footnotes The Authors have no conflict of interest. Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease Conference: Is smoking a risk factor for low back pain in adolescents? A prospective cohort study. Spine Phila Pa 1976 2008;33 5: Smoking and low back pain. A systematic literature review of 41 journal articles reporting 47 epidemiologic studies. Spine Phila Pa 1976 1999;24 14: A review of the association between cigarette smoking and the development of nonspecific back pain and related outcomes.

Spine Phila Pa 1976 2000;25 8: Mechanism of intervertebral disc degeneration caused by nicotine in rabbits to explicate intervertebral disc disorders caused by smoking. Spine Phila Pa 1976 2002;27 13: Gene expression changes in an early stage of intervertebral disc degeneration induced by passive cigarette smoking. Spine Phila Pa 1976 2006;31 5: Smoking and overweight as predictors of hospitalization for back disorders.

Spine Phila Pa 1976 2003;28 16: Coaches' Guide to Sport Physiology.

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Human Kinetics Publishers; 1986. A comparison of the sit and reach and the modified sit and reach in the measurement of flexibility in women. Res Q Exerc Sport. Skeletal muscle metabolism, morphology and function in sedentary smokers and nonsmokers.

Differences in back extensor strength between smokers and nonsmokers with and without low back pain.

  • He performed the motion of tests for 2 times and moved his hands toward the toes as much as possible and kept himself in this position for a few seconds;
  • The relevant point in the third time was recorded by the flexible ruler;
  • The smell of cigarettes is removed from your hair and clothes;
  • The techniques Carr suggests have worked for many looking for help quitting smoking;
  • Sagging Skin and Wrinkles Tobacco smoke contains over 4,000 chemicals, many of which are carcinogenic known to cause cancer.

J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. Cigarette smoking and physical fitness.