Essays academic service


Critical thinking includes which of the following principles

  • Precision Could you be more specific?
  • Elements of Thought reasoning The "parts" or elements of thinking are as follows;
  • How does that bear on the question?
  • How does that help us with the issue?

Paul-Elder Critical Thinking Framework Critical thinking is that mode of thinking — about any subject, content, or problem — in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully taking charge of the structures inherent in thinking and imposing intellectual standards upon them. Paul and Elder, 2001.

Paul-Elder Critical Thinking Framework

The Paul-Elder framework has three components: They need to be able to identify the "parts" of their thinking, and they need to be able to assess their use of these parts of thinking. Elements of Thought reasoning The "parts" or elements of thinking are as follows: All reasoning has a purpose All reasoning is an attempt to figure something out, to settle some question, to solve some problem All reasoning is based on assumptions All reasoning is done from some point of view All reasoning is based on data, information and evidence All reasoning is expressed through, and shaped by, concepts and ideas All reasoning contains inferences or interpretations by which we draw conclusions and give meaning to data All reasoning leads somewhere or has implications and consequences Universal Intellectual Standards The intellectual standards that are to these elements are used to determine the quality of reasoning.

Good critical thinking requires having a command of these standards. According to Paul and Elder 1997 ,2006the ultimate goal is for the standards of reasoning to become infused in all thinking so as to become the guide to better and better reasoning. The intellectual standards include: Clarity Could you illustrate what you mean?

Could you give me an example? Accuracy How could we check on that?

Elements of Thought (reasoning)

How could we find out if that is true? How could we verify or test that? Precision Could you be more specific? Could you give me more details?

  • Is my purpose fair given the situation?
  • What are some of the complexities of this question?
  • How could we verify or test that?
  • How could we find out if that is true?
  • Do we need to look at this in other ways?

Could you be more exact? Relevance How does that relate to the problem?

  • Am I using my concepts in keeping with educated usage, or am I distorting them to get what I want?
  • Which of these facts are most important?
  • The Paul-Elder framework has three components:

How does that bear on the question? How does that help us with the issue? Depth What factors make this difficult?

What are some of the complexities of this question? What are some of the difficulties we need to deal with?

GSU Master Teacher Program: On Critical Thinking

Breadth Do we need to look at this from another perspective? Do we need to consider another point of view? Do we need to look at this in other ways?

  1. Is my purpose fair given the situation?
  2. What are some of the difficulties we need to deal with?
  3. All reasoning has a purpose All reasoning is an attempt to figure something out, to settle some question, to solve some problem All reasoning is based on assumptions All reasoning is done from some point of view All reasoning is based on data, information and evidence All reasoning is expressed through, and shaped by, concepts and ideas All reasoning contains inferences or interpretations by which we draw conclusions and give meaning to data All reasoning leads somewhere or has implications and consequences Universal Intellectual Standards The intellectual standards that are to these elements are used to determine the quality of reasoning.
  4. Paul and Elder, 2001.

Logic Does all of this make sense together? Does your first paragraph fit in with your last one? Does what you say follow from the evidence? Significance Is this the most important problem to consider? Is this the central idea to focus on? Which of these facts are most important? Fairness Is my thinking justifiable in context? Am I taking into account the thinking of others? Is my purpose fair given the situation?

Am I using my concepts in keeping with educated usage, or am I distorting them to get what I want? Intellectual Traits Consistent application of the standards of thinking to the elements of thinking result in the development of intellectual traits of: