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Inter agency cooperation within the joint operation

Inter-agency Cooperation Mechanisms

Cryptologic support group CSG. The J2 staff has intelligence experts from each of the command's subordinate service components. The staff provides the CINC and J2 with inter agency cooperation within the joint operation on each component's intelligence capabilities, limitations, and requirements. The staff may include additional support elements from each subordinate command. The theater or combatant command JIC is the principal element for ensuring effective intelligence support for combatant command CINC and theater forces.

The JIC also provides intelligence support to national and subordinate commands within the theater. Combatant commanders who have a JIC, organize it in the manner best suited to satisfy their intelligence requirements.

Normally the theater JIC -- Coordinates the intelligence efforts of subordinate commands. Coordinates the theater collection plan and employment of theater organic sensors. Provides national and subordinate commands with a single, coordinated intelligence picture by fusing national and theater intelligence into all-source estimates and assessments. Develops and maintains data bases which support planning, operations, and targeting.

Validates BDA from higher, lower, and adjacent sources. Joint Task Force J2. The JTF J2 is responsible for determining the requirements and direction of the intelligence effort to support the JTF commander's objectives. He assists the commander in ensuring that intelligence objectives are correct, understood, prioritized, synchronized, and acted upon.

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The J2 is also responsible for employing joint intelligence resources, identifying and integrating additional intelligence resources such as the JIC, and applying national intelligence capabilities. He works with subordinate service G2s S2s to develop complementary intelligence operations which support the JTF commander's requirements.

He supports and receives guidance from the combatant command J2. The G2- Serves as the component focal point for ground force intelligence. Supervises all facets of the theater Army IEW operations, including collection management, and all-source production to satisfy the intelligence needs of the commander.

Provides ISEs for liaison with Army, joint, combined, and allied military organizations and their associated intelligence organizations and services. Recommends standard tactical missions and command relationships of theater IEW assets supporting the ground forces of subordinate, joint, or combined commands or other IEW organizations in the theater.

Theater Military Intelligence Brigade. Each theater MI brigade is regionally and functionally tailored according to the requirements of the specific theater. The theater MI brigade provides multidiscipline IEW support normally to the Army G2; however, in certain theaters, the brigade provides echelon above division support to the theater under the direction of the J2 vice G2 and may be integrated into the J2's operations. Support to the joint intelligence structure with ground component intelligence.

The theater MI brigade organic assets vary by theater. Reinforcement to national sensor nodes in the theater to leverage strategic signals and IMINT collection and processing systems for the ASC and supported corps. Operational intelligence products for deployed forces such as graphic templates and annotated imagery. It is directly supervised by the G2 and normally collocates with the G2 staff. The theater Army ACE -- Performs collection management, all-source intelligence production, and intelligence and information dissemination.

Supports national, joint, and combined commands with key intelligence products through the Intelligence BOS. Manages the exchange of intelligence, tasking, and requests among all Army IEW elements in the theater. It supplements the organic collection capabilities of supported commands. Corps Military Intelligence Support Element. Its soldiers form a team of experts familiar with corps, theater, and national intelligence systems and structures.

It must work in cooperation with, and be complementary to, the JIC to fully exploit the capabilities of the intelligence system.

  • The Army helps resource the permanent intelligence staff but may still augment that staff with an ISE;
  • Members of the CMISE provide continuity during exercises or contingencies when they remain at home station, pull intelligence from higher echelons, and push finished intelligence to the corps.

Provides additional capability to do split-based operations. Members of the CMISE provide continuity during exercises or contingencies when they remain at home station, pull intelligence from higher echelons, and push finished intelligence to the corps.

Provides an ISE with deployed elements of the corps to facilitate greater continuity and expanded links to higher echelons. Monitors other countries in the corps AI while the MI brigade focuses on an exercise or contingency operation. Expands the number of regions or countries the corps can monitor and provides a strategic intelligence capability focused on the commander's requirements. Supports the corps at any point during an operation with versatility in intelligence support and access to higher echelon intelligence.

Key responsibilities of intelligence organizations in joint intelligence operations are to -- Support unified, JTF, and component commanders. Integrate intelligence received from component units with that provided by the joint, national, combined, and interagency resources to satisfy the needs of the joint commander.

Coordinate component EW efforts to support the joint effort. Facilitate expedient and efficient access to the entire DOD intelligence structure in support of joint operations. The combatant command and joint force commanders do not have organic collection assets. These may include joint force collection assets, assets organic to the service component commands, SOF, or other subordinate commands within the theater. The J2 must task collection assets through the component command, combined command, or other appropriate command channels.

When serving on a joint staff, Army intelligence personnel comply with joint doctrine, Joint Publication 2-seriesand Joint Publication 3-0. Collection management at the joint level differs slightly from Army doctrine.

At the joint level, dissemination responsibility lies with the joint equivalent of the inter agency cooperation within the joint operation manager not the asset manager. The joint staff ensures that component data bases and communications systems are interoperable. Joint Publications 2-02-01and 2-02 contain more details on national intelligence agencies; the NMJIC and lower echelon JICs; joint TTPs for intelligence support to joint, combined, and allied commands; and the communications and ADP systems which make that support possible.

In combined operations, forces of two or more nations work to accomplish the mission. Other coalitions and alliances must adjust the concept of IEW support to meet the common goal. Furthermore, most potential allies will not possess the range of US capabilities to collect and process intelligence. All personnel work to eliminate differences in culture, language, terminology, and operational concepts.

See Joint Publication 2-0 for specific information on this subject. Combined intelligence organizations vary according to the type of operation, commander's intelligence requirements, security concerns, and capabilities of each participant. The joint intelligence structure discussed earlier provides a framework for organizing the combined intelligence effort.

However, inter agency cooperation within the joint operation final combined intelligence structure should be one in which allied, coalition, and US commanders receive the information necessary to successfully conduct the operation. Allied organizations like NATO are permanently organized with established relationships and procedures. The Army helps resource the permanent intelligence staff but may still augment that staff with an ISE.

Military operations with coalition partners take place under bilateral, multinational, or United Nations UN auspices. Military coalitions are temporary organizations that last only for the duration of a crisis or war.

The coalition commander establishes organizations, relationships, inter agency cooperation within the joint operation procedures for coalition units. Army staffs coordinate support from coalition and allied partner intelligence resources through the ISE of the combined staff. Coalition and allied partners provide translator and interpreter support to complement Army linguist capabilities. Combined IEW operations are based on the following principles: Adjust National Differences Among Nations.

Effective combined operations require adjusting IEW operations to minimize differences in national concepts of IEW support. Routinely conducting combined exercise and intelligence operations are two ways of eliminating differences and improving intelligence readiness. Unity of Effort Against Common Threat. The threat to one member of an alliance or coalition should be considered a threat to all. Determining and Planning Intelligence. The combined command and national forces' intelligence requirements, production, and use should be agreed upon, planned, and exercised in advance.

Special arrangements should be made, when necessary, to accommodate national differences in culture, language, terms, doctrine, methods of operation, communications, and structures. Full Exchange of Intelligence.

Each nation should share intelligence which supports military operations and attains alliance or coalition objectives. Every attempt should be made to ensure alliance and coalition commanders are provided the intelligence needed to protect their forces and achieve success. This may require gaining permission from national intelligence agencies for the declassification or sanitization of previously restricted intelligence. Once permission is gained, the exchange of intelligence must be monitored to ensure it complies with foreign disclosure policies and procedures.

The strengths and weaknesses of each nation's IEW forces and operations should be evaluated to determine the best blend of capabilities available to accomplish the mission. The exchange of intelligence personnel between alliance or coalition partners bridges national differences and ensures access to intelligence resources of each nation. Joint Publication 2-0 provides specifics for these procedures.

In addition, the -- Coalition commander determines standardized procedures for coalition forces. Combined staff ensures that allied and coalition forces use interoperable data bases and communication systems. AR 34-1 contains further information on these agreements.

Standardize the intelligence estimate content and format. Establish intelligence reporting procedures and format of request for intelligence information RII. Interagency operations occur between Army units and Federal, state, and local agencies or international agencies.

In a particular crisis or operation, the Army component may be under the direction of a US Government agency or other civilian agency. Interagency operations require a cooperative approach to the coordination, exchange, and integration of intelligence within the constraints of AR 381-10.

MI units involved in this type of operation need to understand how the agency provides support to operators, planners, and policymakers to conduct successful operations. Joint Publication 2-01 contains more information on interagency operations. The organization varies depending upon the situation and the mission. Certain efforts such as counter-drug operations are well-established.