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Potential issues facing private security and effective protection measures

Control or monitor physical processes and equipment Architecture Enterprise wide infrastructure and applications generic Event-driven, real-time, embedded hardware and software custom Interfaces GUI, Web browser, terminal and keyboard Electromechanical, sensors, actuators, coded displays, hand-held devices Ownership Engineers, technicians, operators and managers Connectivity Control networks, hard wired twisted pair and IP-based Role Supports people Controls machines The National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST has been a primary source of IT cyber standards and guides.

ICS or OT has traditionally not received the same level of cyber scrutiny as the IT systems; however, malware such as Stuxnet, Duqu, and Flame are now specifically designed to infect the OT components and devices at the firmware or Project File level, and then inject false commands to spoof the operator's Human Machine Interface HMI console, establish a command and control channel to exfiltrate data technical specifications, floor plans, drawings, etc.

All control systems should be on a separate network with multiple levels of DMZs and sub-networks. Defending Building Control Systems: The WBDG Cybersecurity Resource Page is meant to be primarily for the buildings community, but also has additional information and links to other control systems, workshops, and training.

Whereas the IT community has had almost two decades to learn and implement cybersecurity, the OT community will have an accelerated learning curve and will need to work closely with senior management, IT, and other stakeholders to properly cybersecure their assets.

Every building owner should have a building cybersecurity strategy and have the following key documents that cover both the IT and OT assets: Key to the recommendations is to bring the physical security specialists, facility engineers and managers, IT, system integrators, and property owner to the table to conduct assessments and develop System Security Plans.

It defines a process based on the Risk Management Framework suitable for control systems of any impact rating, and applies to all planning, design and construction, renovation, and repair of new and existing facilities and installations that result in DoD real property assets, regardless of funding source. The publication is generic enough such that can it be used by any organization.

The site provides step-by-step instructions to create a baseline risk assessment in the planning and design phases, how to create a Test and Development Environment, a Design and Construction Sequence Table that identifies deliverables and expected timeframe such as when potential issues facing private security and effective protection measures how to perform Factory Acceptance Testing FAT in the construction phase; and conduct full Site Acceptance Testing to include penetration testing for system turnover, templates, resources and tools.

Related Issues Building Design to Mitigate the Potential for a Progressive Collapse Progressive collapse is loosely defined as a situation where a localized failure of a primary structural element leads to the collapse of adjacent structural elements, which propagates to disproportionate collapse of the structure. ASCE 7 states "Progressive collapse is defined as the spread of an initial local failure from element to element, eventually resulting in the collapse of an entire structure or disproportionately large part of it.

The phenomenon is applicable to structure of any appreciable size and type of construction. Concern is greatest for taller structures, as the propagation mechanism is typically vertical. Design guidelines for the prevention of progressive collapse typically take a threat-independent approach that, regardless of initial cause, is intended to develop inherent robustness and continuity in the structure to resist and arrest propagation of failure.

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For example, design of a structural frame to resist propagation of damage after loss of a primary vertical-load-carrying element such as a load-bearing wall or column is a typical threat-independent approach to providing this resistance. This approach assumes complete damage of the structural element being considered and enhances the structure to prevent disproportionate spread of damage.

By assuming loss of single vertical-load-carrying elements at key locations in the structure, the designer can reduce the potential for progressive collapse, should an initiating event occur.

Each of these guidelines provides methods for analysis and measures of acceptability to meet each specific criterion. These Progressive Collapse guidelines GSA and UFC are currently the most complete sets of criteria in terms of providing usable guidance to the designer.

Additional discussion of the role of Progressive Collapse mitigation measures in securing buildings can be found in the resource pages for Blast Safety of the Building Envelope and Designing Buildings to Resist Explosive Threats.

Crash Rated Barriers and Applicable Standards A successful site security plan often involves the establishment and enforcement of a controlled perimeter. The controlled perimeter may act to prevent threats that are transported by vehicles or by pedestrians from entering a standoff zone around a protected facility.

A controlled perimeter that is designed to stop a vehicle from entering a protected site is often required to be "crash" or "anti-ram" rated.

  1. Crash Rated Barriers and Applicable Standards A successful site security plan often involves the establishment and enforcement of a controlled perimeter. This dynamic uncertainty makes the likelihood of future terrorist events extremely difficult if not impossible to estimate and increases the difficulty of measuring the economic efficiency of public policies and private strategies.
  2. Since the s, crime-related security systems have grown especially rapidly in most countries. Local flange buckling must be avoided by using closely spaced stiffeners or, in the case of blast resistant design, the concrete encasement of the steel section.
  3. In most developed countries, insurance is one of the principal mechanisms used by individuals and organizations for managing risk. A well-functioning insurance market plays a critical role in ensuring social and economic continuity when large-scale disaster occurs.
  4. Enhancing capabilities in the United States for prevention, recovery, and response relating to attacks on critical infrastructure will not be easy. In protecting critical infrastructure, the responsibility for setting goals rests primarily with the government, but the implementation of steps to reduce the vulnerability of privately owned and corporate assets depends primarily on private-sector knowledge and action.

A crash rated barrier system is typically tested or engineered such that it can stop a certain size vehicle i. The vehicle size, vehicle speed and penetration distance are typically determined based on the accessibility of the site, the topography and alignment of the surrounding roadways and the required standoff distance.

Crash rated barriers take various forms and can include bollards, cable reinforced fences and planters.

Security for Building Occupants and Assets

Where vehicle access is required into the secure site for parking, maintenance, emergencies or deliveries, active vehicle barriers may be employed; these can include plate barriers, wedge barriers, retractable bollards or gates. For more discussion regarding crash rated barrier assemblies, see UFC Selection and Application of Vehicle Barriersand the Bollard resource page. An example impact condition designation is a H50 which designates a "heavy goods vehicle" traveling at 50 mph.

Similar C—, PU—, and M—ratings are provided for the other test vehicle types. Careful planning and an understanding of historic preservation objectives is necessary in order to address the requirements of both.

A discussion of retrofit methods that have been successfully employed to meet security requirements in existing buildings are provided in the Retrofitting Existing Buildings to Resist Explosive Threats resource page. Specific challenges that may be encountered in applying these retrofit methodologies to historic buildings include lack of documentation on the existing construction, differing building technology at the time of construction, low inherent strength and ductility of existing systems, and limitations on modifications that can be made due to historic preservation restrictions.

Integrating Security and Sustainability Providing for sustainable design that meets all facility requirements is often a challenge. With limited resources, it is not always feasible to provide for the most secure facility, architecturally expressive design, or energy efficient building envelope. From the planning and concept stages through the development of construction documents, it is important that all project or design stakeholders work cooperatively to ensure a balanced design.

Successful designs must consider all competing design objectives and make the best selections. This applies as well to the site, as well as the building.

Integrating Security and Fire Protection Care should be taken to implement physical security measures that allow Fire Protection forces access to sites, buildings and building occupants with adequate means of emergency egress to comply fully with NFPA GSA has conducted a study and developed recommendations on design strategies that achieve both secure and fire safe designs.

Specifically, the issue of emergency ingress and egress through blast resistant window systems was studied. Integrated Security Systems Integrated security systems can offer more efficient access and control. Integrated Security Systems, LTD There has been a general trend towards integrating various stand-alone security systems, integrating systems across remote locations, and integrating security systems with other systems such as communications, and fire and emergency management.

Some CCTV, fire, mass notification systems, and burglar alarm systems have been integrated to form the foundation for access control. The emerging trend is to integrate security systems with facility and potential issues facing private security and effective protection measures operational procedures. By involving facility stakeholders from the programming stage throughout the life of the project, the behavioral-based policies can be successfully integrated with security systems and forces.

Seismic Design Seismic and blast resistant design share some common analytical methodologies and a performance based design philosophy that accepts varying levels of damage in response to varying levels of dynamic excitation. Both design approaches recognize that it is cost prohibitive to provide comprehensive protection against all conceivable events and an appropriate level of protection that lessens the risk of mass casualties can be provided at a reasonable cost.

Both seismic design and blast resistant design approaches benefit from a risk assessment that evaluates the functionality, criticality, occupancy, site conditions and design features of a building. While there may be more predictability with natural hazards, this is not the case with man-made hazards. Also the explosive threats of potential issues facing private security and effective protection measures future are very likely to be very different from the explosive threats of the past.

Another fundamental difference between seismic and blast events are the acceptable design limits. Since earthquakes are more predictable and affect more structures than are affected by blast events, owners may be willing to accept different levels of risk relative to these different events, and this may translate into differences in acceptable design limits, as defined by allowable deformation, ductility and other functions.

Both seismic design and blast resistant design approaches consider the time-varying nature of the loading function. The response of a building to earthquake loads is global in nature, with the base motions typically applied uniformly over the foundations of the buildings.

These seismic motions induce forces that are proportional to the building mass. Blast loading is not uniformly applied to all portions of the building. The structure's mass also contributes to its inertial resistance. Due to the local versus global nature of blast loading, seismic loading analogies, including the concept of blast-induced base shears, potential issues facing private security and effective protection measures be applied with great care or they may be misconstrued to provide a false sense of protection.

Building configuration characteristics, such as size, shape and location of structural elements, are important issues for both seismic and blast resistant design.

The manner in which forces are distributed throughout the building is strongly affected by its configuration. While seismic forces are proportional to the mass of the building and increase the demand, inertial resistance plays a significant role in the design of structures to reduce the response to blast loading.

Structures that are designed to resist seismic forces benefit from low height-to-base ratios, balanced resistance, symmetrical plans, uniform sections and elevations, the placement of shear walls and lateral bracing to maximize torsional resistance, short spans, direct load paths and uniform floor heights. While blast resistant structures share many of these same attributes, the reasons for doing so may differ.

For example, seismic excitations may induce torsional response modes in structures with re-entrant corners. These conditions provide pockets where blast pressures may reflect off of adjacent walls and amplify the blast effects. Similarly, first floor arcades that produce overhangs or reentrant corners create localized concentrations of blast pressure and expose areas of the floor slab that may be uplifted.

In seismic design, adjacent structures may suffer from the effects of pounding in which the two buildings may hit one another as they respond to the base motions. Adjacent structures in dense urban environments may be vulnerable to amplification of blast effects due to the multiple reflections of blast waves as they propagate from the source of the detonation. While the geology of the site has a significant influence on the seismic motions that load the structure, the surrounding geology of the site will influence the size of the blast crater and the reflectivity of the blast waves off the ground surface.

On an element level, the plastic deformation demands for both seismically loaded structures and blast-loaded structures require attention to details. Many similar detailing approaches can be used to achieve the ductile performance of structural elements when subjected to both blast and seismic loading phenomenon. Concrete columns require lateral reinforcement to provide confinement to the core and prevent premature buckling of the rebar.

Closely spaced ties and spiral reinforcement are particularly effective in increasing the ductility of a concrete compression element. Carbon fiber wraps and steel jacket retrofits provide comparable confinement to existing structures.

Steel column splices must be located away from regions of plastic hinging or must be detailed to develop the full moment capacity of the section.

Development of security systems.

Local flange buckling must be avoided by using closely spaced stiffeners or, in the case of blast resistant design, the concrete encasement of the steel section. Reinforced concrete beam sections require resistance to positive and negative bending moments. In addition to the effects of load reversals and rebound, doubly reinforced sections possess greater ductility than singly reinforced counterparts.

Steel beams may be constructed composite with the concrete deck in order to increase the ultimate capacity of the section; however, this increase is not equally effective for both positive and negative moments. While the composite slab may brace the top flange of the steel section, the bottom flange is vulnerable to buckling. Addressing blast and seismic design goals may be achieved through the consideration of many of the same building attributes and potential issues facing private security and effective protection measures similar design and detailing solutions.

An understanding of the differences between these two loading phenomenon, the effects on the structure, and the performance requirements are essential in order to select and implement the appropriate choices for achieving the project's goals. See the Designing Buildings to Resist Explosive Threats page for additional discussion on this topic.

Relevant Codes and Standards Highly complex security system design is still neither codified nor regulated, and no universal codes or standards apply to all public and private sector buildings. However, in many cases, government agencies, including the military services, and private sector organizations have developed specific security design criteria. These standards must be flexible and change in response to emerging threats.