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Research studies in competency based performance appraisal for teachers

Implications to the Quality of Teaching Secondary Mathematics. Advances in Sciences and Humanities. August 26, 2016; Accepted: October 28, 2016; Published: November 21, 2016 Abstract: This study attempts to address this concern by considering private and public schools. It measured the quality of Mathematics teachers using three indicators: Their teaching competencies were high in all domains.

These imply that the teachers of both schools possess the skill to teach with quality. Their levels of teaching competencies were also comparable.

This could be due to other moderating variables on the side of the NNVS students that affected their performance. The findings suggest teachers should continually improve their teaching methods, more preferably focusing on all learning domains.

They should provide rooms for their own holistic development as Mathematics teachers. A deeper scrutiny of this issue would be interesting with larger samples and extensive analyses. Teaching Practices and Methods 2.

Teaching Competence and Learning Domains 2. Research Setting and Participants 4. Results and Discussion 5. Conclusion and Recommendations Biography References 1.

Introduction Teaching is an active process in which one shares information with others to make behavioral changes. Along with teaching is learning, which refers to the process of assimilating information with a resultant change in behavior.

The teaching-learning process is a planned interaction that promotes behavioral change that is not a result of maturation or coincidence Banks, 2000. Teaching and learning activities solidify parts or the process of the curriculum where the questions of "what should be taught? This stage is largely the planning of how learning will take place.

Variables such as learning environment, methods and techniques of teaching are employed in this stage. Teaching and learning mathematics are complex tasks. Similarly, measuring the quality of Mathematics teachers is not an easy task. Many components should be analyzed in order to come up with the necessary conclusion. Teaching competencies are greatly important since these are based on the expectations and standards that experts set for teachers.

According to Prokop, Tuncer and Chuda 2007the quality of education that teachers provide to students is highly dependent upon what teachers do in the classroom. Thus, it only shows that teachers play an important role in achieving and maintaining quality education. The role of professional development in assuring quality teaching for experienced teachers is critical National Staff Development Council, 2005.

Teachers should have sufficient knowledge on how students learn mathematics and how it should be taught best. Changing the way teachers teach is a continuing professional concern.

Efforts should be taken research studies in competency based performance appraisal for teachers to inculcate Mathematics lesson away from traditional methods to a more effective approach.

Evaluation Functions: Types And Purposes

The following were considered as variables under study: There has been dearth of researches dealing with the quality of Mathematics teachers in the Caraga Region in the Philippines. It is in this premise that the researchers took the initiative of looking into the quality of teachers, particularly in the two 2 known research studies in competency based performance appraisal for teachers schools under study. The results and findings of the study will shed light on enhancing the quality of teaching Mathematics, thereby promoting quality education in the region.

Literature Review According to Demirel 2010planning the process of effective teaching-learning depends on teachers equipped with various qualifications. Methods practiced by teachers are very important factors to determine the quality of teaching-learning process.

Prokop 2007 states that the quality of education that teachers provide to students is highly dependent upon what teachers do in the classroom. Thus, it only shows that teachers play an important role in maintaining a good quality education.

Teachers should have sufficient knowledge of how students learn mathematics and how best to teach. Efforts should be taken now to inculcate mathematics lesson away from traditional methods to a more effective approach. Lardizabal, et al, 2002 cited the two types of teacher education namely: Under the pre-service education, it is mentioned that in helping teachers develop the qualities considered essential to quality teaching, the curriculum of any teacher training institution is composed of three basic areas such as: Teaching and learning activities are the application part or the process of the curriculum where the questions of "what should be taught?

This stage is, to a great extent, the planning of how learning will be actualized. Variables such as learning environment, and methods and techniques of teaching are employed in this stage.

According to Zevenbergen n. He also added that Mathematics is taught in an exclusive and supportive learning environment. Knowledge of students is validly and legitimately incorporated in the teaching and learning experiences of the classroom. Thus, teachers, who are always act as facilitator of learning, then possess a deep knowledge in handling the said course. Teaching Mathematics can be a discouraging task. No matter the grade level, teaching Mathematics can be a difficult task.

Many children have low self-esteem concerning their math capabilities; others believe that math is boring or futile. All of these views can lead students and teachers alike to become frustrated with research studies in competency based performance appraisal for teachers subject. Fortunately, there are a number of Mathematics teaching methods likely to increase student enthusiasm and comprehension such as: Guided Discovery, cooperative learning, questioning techniques and using manipulatives Schoenfield, 2005.

Teaching Practices and Methods The 2002 Basic Education curriculum in Mathematics in the Secondary Level advocates the use a variety of teaching strategies among which are practical work, discussion, problem solving, investigations besides exposition and practice and consolidation as well as cooperative learning Department of Education, 2002. The teaching strategies perceived to be most effective by Science and Mathematics teachers of schools identified as benchmarks in teaching and learning practices were: In the new mathematics, the focus is on problem solving, mathematical reasoning, justifying ideas, making sense of complex situations and independently learning new ideas.

Students must be provided with opportunities to solve complex problems, formulate and test mathematical ideas and draw conclusion. Students must be able to read, write and discuss mathematics, use demonstrations, drawings and real-world objects, and participate in formal mathematical and logical arguments Battista, 1999 in Education Alliance, 2006. Consequently, as noted by Romberg 2000a set of basic assumptions about teaching and schooling practices is implicit in this reform.

First, all students must have an opportunity to lean new mathematics. Second, all students have the capacity to learn more mathematics than what is traditionally assumed.

Evaluation of Teaching Competency-Based Performance in Middle School Education

Third, new application and changes in technology have changed the instructional importance of some mathematics concepts. Fourth, new instructional environments can be created with technological tools. Fifth, meaningful mathematics learning is a product of purposeful engagement and interaction which builds on prior experience. Teaching practices are central to understanding what makes for effective teaching. Sabean and Bavaria 2005 have synthesized a list of the most significant principles related to mathematics teaching and learning.

This list includes the expectations that teachers know what students need to learn based on what they know, teachers ask questions focused on developing conceptual understanding, experiences and prior knowledge provide the basis for learning mathematics with understanding, students provide written justification for problem solving strategies, problem based activities focus on concepts and skills, and that the mathematics curriculum emphasizes conceptual understanding.

Concurrently, the following best practices for implementing effective standards-based math lessons should be followed Teaching Today, 2005 as cited in Education Alliance, 2006: The most persistent component of teaching activity is students.

However, the key to teaching effectiveness is teacher. It is necessary to probe into teacher quality to help teachers ascertain their shortcoming so that they cannot only improve themselves but also increase their teaching effectiveness.

  • The teaching-learning process is a planned interaction that promotes behavioral change that is not a result of maturation or coincidence Banks, 2000;
  • August 26, 2016; Accepted;
  • Concurrently, the following best practices for implementing effective standards-based math lessons should be followed Teaching Today, 2005 as cited in Education Alliance, 2006:

Teaching Competence and Learning Domains Teacher quality and teacher competence are concepts that are often referred to and frequently applied in different educational contexts: Professional competence also necessitates skills such as subject application, classroom methodology, classroom management, assessment and recording and undertaking a wider role.

Teacher with high competence is one of the most significant factors manipulate the student learning as well as serving the schools to meet its objectives and missions. Quality teaching is one of the enduring concerns in education. This interest is obvious; when schools are thought.

Teachers also come in mind. Given the instructional and economic dominance of teachers in schooling, it is natural to want to judge effectiveness of educational investments in part by looking at teaching.

The problems begin when one tries to operationalize the measurement of the quality of teaching and confuses it with the "quality of teachers. Using student achievement as a way to estimate teaching effectiveness is one approach.

Identifying Gaps in Competency Based Learning Research

It seems like reasonable tactic; after all, teachers ought to help students learn Baker, n. Related Studies This section describes related studies pertaining to the quality of teaching secondary Mathematics. According to Prokop et al. They concluded then, that in preparing the students of today to become successful individuals of tomorrow, science and mathematics teachers need to ensure that their teaching is effective. It only implies that in teaching-learning process, teachers are elements that hold an important role in pursuing teaching-learning process effectively.

The purpose of the research was to examine the range of factors including knowledge, beliefs, understanding and practices of teacher of Mathematics and their qualifications, professional development and relevant personal experiences, and how these impact on student learning outcomes in the high school years. One of the main findings of the study was that teacher knowledge and educational background is positively, but weakly related to the teacher effectiveness. The more that this education has to do with Mathematical content and pedagogy, the more likely it is that teachers will be effective.

A case study of Manullang n. The findings of the study suggest that Mathematics teachers should improve their knowledge about the course, other related institutions should be involved in supervising the interaction, cooperation with institutions producing teacher graduates should be developed, and the training programs should be evaluated in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, and investment.

The study conducted by Lin, Xie, Jeng, and Huang 2010 dealt on the relationship between teacher quality and teaching effectiveness as perceived by students from industrial vocational high schools.

  • The teaching strategies perceived to be most effective by Science and Mathematics teachers of schools identified as benchmarks in teaching and learning practices were;
  • Quality teaching is one of the enduring concerns in education.

They found and out that both teacher quality teacher effectiveness differ significantly with school type, with students from private schools having a better perception.