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Review of literature on management of diabetes mellitus

None, Conflict of Interest: This review will unpack the facilitators and barriers for each of the recommended lifestyle change for improving diabetes management i. Finally, the review will discuss the scope for future research and practice within this field in the Indian context. Adherence, diabetes, India, psychosocial, self-management How to cite this article: A review of literature on diabetes self-management: Scope for research and practice in India.

J Soc Health Diabetes 2016;4: Monitoring ones' behavior, ii self-evaluation: Making judgments about ones' behavior in comparison with their own standards and their review of literature on management of diabetes mellitus conditions, and iii self-reaction: The emotional responses associated with the behavior. Self-efficacy takes into account individuals' attitudes, perceptions, and emotions in relation to the behavior.

In this regard, it is observed that patients with diabetes who follow the recommended diet, exercise, medication, and regular monitoring of glucose report better glycemic control than their nonadherent counterparts i. Following this, the article will examine the current status of diabetes self-management research and interventions in India and conclude with reflecting on the scope for research and practice within this area in India.

Methods Of Article Extraction And Synthesis To ensure a comprehensive review of research in diabetes self-management, the authors embarked upon a rigorous and step-by-step article extraction and synthesis process.

Relevant articles were selected and collated based on the broader objective of the review, i. The first and second authors then read, discussed, and summarized each article. From this common trends and findings were identified and synthesized to form the final review.

Challenges in diabetes mellitus type 2 management in Nepal: a literature review

Diet management During diabetes consultations, physicians examine patients' dietary habits and accordingly suggest alterations to ensure glycemic control. First, it was found that dietary knowledge plays a vital role in long-term nutritional self-care. This review of literature on management of diabetes mellitus be because patients who exhibit high levels review of literature on management of diabetes mellitus self-regulation are more likely to plan ahead and execute specific behaviors.

For example, to help maintain dietary adherence, patients preferred to receive informational support from their physician, and emotional and logistical support from their family members. Research indicates that when physicians prescribe a diet that is not sensitive to patients' socioeconomic and cultural background, it leads to poor dietary compliance among patients.

Awareness especially about the different types of exercise and having an opportunity to select a specific exercise promotes adherence. That is, patients who perceive a lack of control over their illness are more likely to fail in planning and executing their daily exercise routine than their counterparts.

Diabetes Self-Management Research And Interventions In India Surprisingly, in spite of the staggering prevalence of diabetes, [48] there is limited research emerging from India examining self-management in diabetes. Key research in India includes Nachman et al. The Jog Falls system aided in a significant weight reduction among participants and in improving patients' self-awareness of their caloric intake. While this study sheds light on the usefulness of a technological intervention to promote dietary and exercise adherence, it does not explore the experiential aspects of the illness e.

Further, the study did not include a diabetes education element to equip patients with information about the roles of diet and exercise in disease management. Addressing the need for capacity-building in semi-urban and rural regions of India, Murugesan et al. Targeting groups of 40—60 physicians each, the program covered a wide range of topics including: The program was positively received and significantly improved physicians' knowledge about diabetes-related topics e.

Interestingly, the physicians suggested a need for providing similar educational material to patients. Indeed, emphasizing the need for patient education, Raheja et al. Scope And Suggestions For Future Research And Practice In India This review revealed that self-management is a complex concept which needs to incorporate the roles of several stakeholders including the patient, physician, family, friends, the wider community, policymakers, and the public health system.

The overarching factors that contribute to patients' adherence are medical literacy, illness beliefs and attitudes, the doctor—patient relationship, and patient characteristics. This section of the review will discuss each of these factors in relation to the Indian context of diabetes care and explore the scope for future research and practice in India and relevant suggestions [Table 1]. It is important to note that although these factors will be discussed independently, they are not mutually exclusive and are, in fact, interwoven such that one may impact the other in an intricate and complicated manner.

Existing need, scope and relevant suggestions for future research and practice in India Click here to view A major resource for improving medical literacy in this review was observed to be the physician, indicating that patients continue to depend on the physician for reliable, valid, and convincing informational support.

This may be challenging to the physician as well as problematic for the patient as there is only so much time and information that their treating physician can communicate to individual patients. Consequently, this dependence on the physician compromises the level and quality of medical knowledge available to patients which, in the end, is a barrier toward effective self-management.

This review found that patients' and their social network's e. However, when patients and their social network have negative beliefs, then it impedes the patient's ability to engage in adherence activities.

Extending this, it may be useful to educate communities on diabetes with a focus on changing or eliminating negative perceptions toward diabetes thus increasing community level support for patients with the illness. These programs can also encourage collective brainstorming of ideas to create a supportive physical and social environment for patient well-being.

Background and objectives

Taking into account, the importance of review of literature on management of diabetes mellitus doctor—patient relationship as both a facilitator and barrier to adherence, it may be vital to incorporate communication skills training CST for physicians and patients so as to enable effective informational exchange. Research examining CST for oncologists reported positive findings such as increasing physicians' confidence in communicating with patients and improved patient outcomes.

Patients may need training in skills such as question-asking and being proactive in the medical encounter. Skills-building techniques such as the question prompts [58] can be introduced to patients with the aim of improving their ability to discuss health issues most important to them. However, these training programs need to take into account individual patient characteristics.

In this review, it was observed that patients' levels of self-regulation, self-control, and self-discipline facilitated self-management, suggesting a need to introduce and support these behaviors as soon as one is diagnosed with diabetes. Further, worldwide research established that maintaining these behaviors helps patients tailor their self-management techniques, instills a sense of ownership toward the illness, and manages their negative responses to the illness, thus indicating the need to better understand the connection between patients' personality and their corresponding diabetes self-management efforts.

Thus, through the help of this review, it can be understood that there is vast scope for research and medical practice in India to improve patient care. This can be achieved by considering the several nuances involved in diabetes self-management in India such as the sociocultural contexts of health literacy, illness beliefs, the role of social support, diabetes-related knowledge, and the doctor—patient relationship.

Conflicts of interest There are no conflicts of interest.