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The development of tea ware in china and england

Etymology[ edit ] The concept of tea culture is referred to in Chinese as chayi "the art of drinking tea"or cha wenhua "tea culture". Tea drinking customs[ edit ] A set of equipment for drinking tea A hostess serves tea at a traditional Chinese tea house.

There are several special circumstances in which tea is prepared and consumed in Chinese culture. A sign of respect In traditional Chinese society, members of the younger generation show their respect to members of the older generation by offering a cup of tea.

Inviting their elders to restaurants for tea is a traditional holiday activity.

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In the past, people of a lower social class served tea to the upper class in society. Today, with the increasing liberalization of Chinese society, this rule and its connotations have become blurred. Sometimes parents may pour a cup of tea for their children to show their care, or a boss may even pour tea for subordinates at restaurants to promote their relationship; however, on formal occasions, the basic rule remains in effect.

  • In a country where cheap labor and rapid industrialization outperform traditional craftsmanship, Chinese potters struggle to preserve the tradition of producing porcelain by hand;
  • It occurs among the stock of a substantial dealer in teas, who has large quantities of named varieties as well as a small amount of TEA DUST.

Family gatherings When sons and daughters leave home for work or marriage, they may spend less time with their parents; therefore, going to restaurants and drinking tea becomes an important activity to reestablish ties at family gatherings.

Every Sunday, Chinese restaurants are crowded with families, especially during the holiday season, for this reason. This phenomenon reflects the function of tea in Chinese family values. To apologize In Chinese culture, tea may be offered as part of a formal apology. For example, children who have misbehaved may serve tea to their parents as a sign of regret and submission. To show gratitude and celebrate weddings In the traditional Chinese marriage ceremonythe bride and groom kneel in front of their respective parents and serve them tea and then thank them, which is a devout way to express their gratitude for being raised.

On some occasions, the bride serves the groom's family, and the groom serves the bride's family. This process symbolizes the joining together of the two families. Finger tapping[ edit ] Four Chinese tea cups Light finger tapping is a customary way to thanking the tea master or tea server for tea. After one's cup is filled, the bent index and middle fingers or some similar combination are knocked on the table to express gratitude to the person who served the tea.

In other parts of China, it is only acceptable if the person wishing to express gratitude is preoccupied with conversation or cannot actually say "thank you" when the cup is filled.

This custom is said to have originated in the Qing dynasty when the Qianlong Emperor traveled in disguise throughout the empire and his accompanying servants were instructed not to reveal their master's identity. One day in a restaurant, after pouring himself a cup of tea the emperor filled a servant's cup as well. To that servant it was a huge honor to have the emperor pour him a cup of tea.

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Out of habit, he wanted to kneel and express his thanks to the emperor, but he could not do this since that would reveal the emperor's identity. Instead, he bent his fingers and knocked the table to express his gratitude and respect.

In this sense, the bent fingers supposedly signify a bowing servant, one finger representing the head and the others the arms. In formal tea ceremonies nodding the head or saying "thank you" is more appropriate. Brewing Chinese tea[ edit ] Main articles: Tea preparation and Tea culture The different ways of brewing Chinese tea depend on variables like the formality of the occasion, the means of the people preparing it, and the kind of tea being brewed.

For example, green teas are more delicate than oolong teas or black teas ; therefore, green tea should be brewed with cooler water. The most informal method of brewing tea is to simply add the leaves to a pot containing hot water. This method is commonly found in households and restaurants, for example, in the context of dim sum or yum cha in Cantonese restaurants.

  1. By 1899 China had fallen to the figure of 15,677,835 lbs, and India had risen to the enormous figure—a figure never attained by China—of 219,136,185 lbs.
  2. On some of the older tea cups, the once brilliant trim is barely visible, as it has been worn away by time and use. And it feels clean.
  3. Depending on the region of China, there may be differences in the steps of brewing as well as the tools used in the process. It was in this form that in 1660 tea first came to the attention of Excise, being taxed at 8d GALLON, though this was withdrawn thirty years later as 'not only very trouble some and unequal upon the Retailers of those Liquors, but also uprofitable' [Acts 1660 ]; [Acts 1689 ].
  4. This is no doubt because by 1689, the tea sold in London at that time was taxed in liquid form i. Tea kettle [tea-kettle; teakettle; tea kettell; tea cattle] A KETTLE in which water is boiled for making TEA, although by 1756 at least, they had become a normal vessel for heating water generally.
  5. During the 17th century, tea bowls were being exported into Europe, and by the 18th century, the English were producing tea bowls with oriental motifs.

Another method for serving tea is to use a small lidded bowl called a gaiwan. The Hongwu Emperor of the Ming dynasty contributed to the development of loose tea brewing by banning the production of compressed tea.

Gongfu cha Kung fu tea [ edit ] Main article: Gongfu tea ceremony Gongfu cha, meaning "making tea with skill", is a popular method of preparing tea in China. It makes use of small Yixing teapots holding about 100 — 150 ml 4 or 5 fl. Brewing tea in a Yixing teapot can be done for private enjoyment as well as to welcome guests. Depending on the region of China, there may be differences in the steps of brewing as well as the tools used in the process. For example, Taiwanese-style gongfu cha makes use of several additional instruments including tweezers and a tea strainer.

The procedure is mostly applicable to oolong teas, but it is some used to make pu'er and other fermented teas. Influence on Chinese culture[ edit ] Tea has had a major influence on the development of Chinese culture, and Chinese traditional culture is closely connected with Chinese tea.

Tea is often associated with literature, arts, and philosophy and is closely connected with Taoism, Buddhism and Confucianism. Roughly since the Tang Dynasty, drinking tea has been an essential part of self-cultivation. Chinese Chan similar to Japanese Zen philosophy is also linked with drinking tea.

Teaware[ edit ] Traditionally, tea drinkers were regarded as the 'academic' and 'cultural elites' of the society. The practice of drinking tea was considered to be an expression of personal morality, education, social principles, and status.

Tea, Porcelain, and Silk: Chinese Exports to the West in the Early Modern Period

Increased enthusiasm for tea drinking led to the greater production of teawarewhich significantly popularized Chinese porcelain culture. Teahouse[ edit ] Ancient Chinese scholars used the teahouse as a place for sharing ideas.

The teahouse was a place where political allegiances and social rank were said to have been temporarily suspended in favor of an honest and rational discourse. The leisurely consumption of tea promoted conviviality and civility amongst the participants. The teahouse is not only a minor by-product of Chinese tea culture; it offers historical evidence of Chinese tea history.

The teahouse atmosphere is still dynamic and vigorous.

  1. Loud objections to the habit notwithstanding, the popularity of tea continued to spread right down the social scale Though the small farmer, Richard Latham never recorded a single purchase during the forty years he kept details of expenditure [Latham 1990 ], the account book of a retailer of Didsbury in the 1780s shows that poor people were buying tea [Mui and Mui 1989 ]. In the middle and later years of the 19th century, the consumption of Chinese silk textiles experienced a remarkable expansion in Europe and the United States.
  2. The teahouse was a place where political allegiances and social rank were said to have been temporarily suspended in favor of an honest and rational discourse.
  3. Tea houses and tea gardens remained popular throughout the period, at least partly because it was acceptable for women to use them whereas coffee houses were the preserve of men. Tea became a symbolism of feminism associated with the idea of tea as a product of Asia and therefore effeminate, leading to idle gossip and wanton behaviour.
  4. Early British tea pots roughly emulated the Chinese, retaining the squat, rotund shape , but by the mid-eighteenth century, potters like Josiah Wedgwood were making adventurous designs to attract the fashion-seeking market. Alatas describes how the British Empire benefited from tea cultivation and production in Assam.

Modern culture[ edit ] In modern China, virtually every dwelling—even down to the simplest mud hut—has a set of tea implements for brewing a cup of hot tea. They are symbols of welcome for visitors or neighbors. Traditionally, a visitor to a Chinese home is expected to sit down and drink tea while talking; visiting while remaining standing is considered uncouth.

Folding the napkin in tea ceremonies is a traditional act in China performed to keep away bad qi energy. Tea was regarded as one of the seven daily necessities, the others being firewoodriceoilsaltsoy sauceand vinegar. There are several types of tea: Traditionally, fresh tea leaves are regularly turned over in a deep bowl. This process allows the leaves dry in a way that preserves their full flavor, ready for use.