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The impact of ict in contemporary diplomacy

Electronic Journal of Academic and Special Librarianship v. Globalization as one of the reasons for possible widening of the gap between the poor and the rich nations was examined and the emerging concept of "digital slavery" was carefully evaluated.

The wide gap in availability and use of ICTs across the world and the influences ICTs exert on globalization at the expense of developing countries were carefully examined and suggestions and necessary policies were offered for developing countries to leap-frog the industrialization stage and transform their economies into high value-added information economies that can compete with the advanced countries on the global market.

This is why it is important for Africa, in general, and Nigeria, in particular, to be aware of the implications, prepare to avoid the most telling consequences and prepare to meet its challenges. Introduction The information revolution and the extraordinary increase in the spread of knowledge have given birth to a new era--one of knowledge and information which effects directly economic, social, cultural and political activities of all regions of the world, including Africa.

Governments worldwide have recognized the role that Information and Communication Technologies could play in socio-economic development. A number of countries especially those in the developed world the impact of ict in contemporary diplomacy some in developing countries are putting in place policies and plans designed to transform their economies into an information and knowledge economy. Countries like USA, Canada, and a number of European countries, as well as Asian countries like India, Singapore, Malaysia, South Korea, Japan, and South American countries like Brazil, Chile, and Mexico among others, and Australia and Mauritius either already have in place comprehensive ICTs policies and plans or are at an advanced stage of implementing these programmes across their economies and societies.

Some of these countries see ICTs and their deployment for socio-economic development as one area where they can quickly establish global dominance and reap tremendous payoff in terms of wealth creation and generation of high quality employment. On the other hand, some other countries regard the development and utilization of ICTs within their economy and society as a key component of their national vision to improve the quality of life, knowledge and international competitiveness.

Technological innovation has contributed to globalization by supplying infrastructure for trans-world connections. Both developed and less-developed countries can not afford to miss out on the opportunities these technologies are creating. In practice, globalization benefits those with technology, resources, contacts, information and access to markets.

It has a negative impact on the poor.

  1. All this goes a long way in educating the public on their rights and duties.
  2. Some of these countries see ICTs and their deployment for socio-economic development as one area where they can quickly establish global dominance and reap tremendous payoff in terms of wealth creation and generation of high quality employment.
  3. It means that you avoid taking actions and making statements that you are not willing to stand behind in public and dovetails with what we already saw regarding the shift of focus towards public diplomacy. Another glaring difference between the way diplomacy is practiced today and the way it was practiced before the information revolution is due to the death of secrecy.
  4. These efforts led to the development of National Information and Communication Infrastructure NICI , whose policies, plans and strategies could be used to enhance the role of information and communication technologies in facilitating the socio-economic development process.
  5. Another glaring difference between the way diplomacy is practiced today and the way it was practiced before the information revolution is due to the death of secrecy. Being a government official no longer gives you the privileged status of the past—if anything, it only earns you suspicion.

The prediction is that the gap between the new winners and losers within the world economy order dominated by an Information and Knowledge Economies will be much larger than the development gap that now exists between the advanced nations and the less developed nations.

African countries are at risk of being further marginalized if they fail to embrace these technologies to transform their economies. As pointed out by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, globalization can benefit humankind as a whole. At the moment millions of people--perhaps even the majority of the human race--are being denied those benefits. They are poor not because they have too much globalization, but rather that they have too little--or none at all.

Many people are actually suffering in different ways--I would say not from globalization itself, but from the failure to manage its adverse effects. The most significant aspect of ICTs and globalization that should concern the developing countries like Nigeria is the fact that it has led to unprecedented inequalities in the distributing of benefits between developed countries and the less developed.

What is different is the intensity and the magnitude of the inequalities that it generates.

  • The market for mobile applications is likely to reach 4 billion USD by
  • On one hand the westerners might feel an exotic touch to their culture and life style when they borrow from other cultures around the world, the other part of the world find the this an expression of western hegemony and hence find it overwhelming and intrusive;
  • But today, we live in the era of rapidly changing media and communications landscape which plays a huge role in creating opportunities and hindrances in the arena of world politics;
  • The media helps the public to keep a watch on the workings of their governments;
  • The conclusion is that certain steps have to be taken in order to access the benefits of globalization while minimizing destabilizations, dislocation, disparities, disruption, distortions and even the concept of 'digital slavery' associated with the current global trends.

In all these developments, there is the underlying assumption that globalization is good for all and that its benefits are shared out even if not equally all over the world. The more developed countries benefit while the least developed countries tend to remain impoverished and do not share in the benefits.

The combined effect of the global fluidity of finance capital, the growth of foreign direct investment, and the emergence of global corporations have greatly undermined the economic and political sovereignty of states--especially the poor ones.

It must be emphasized that the so-called globalized world is riddled with imperfections. First, free trade is far from being free.

In developing countries, trade distorting export subsidies and domestic support in agriculture make nonsense of the pretensions to free trade. Likewise, developed countries restrict the imports of labour-intensive products like textiles that would provide a major boost to exports of developing the impact of ict in contemporary diplomacy. Free movement of persons across national borders is severely restricted. Highly skilled personnel and those who have money to invest can cross borders fairly easily.

The story is different for lower skilled people and particularly unskilled labour. These people can hardly move at all. All of the above point to the indices of digital slavery for developing countries.

In effect, what we now call globalization is really a globalization of imperfections: The diffusion of ICT into Africa is at a snail's speed, such that the gap between the information-rich developed countries and Africa continues to increase everyday. Consequently most African countries including Nigeria have not been able to reap the abundant benefits of the global information society and the information economy in areas such as education, health, commerce, agriculture, rural development etc.

It is the objective of this paper to evaluate the effects of ICT in the globalization process and examine the emerging concept of 'Digital Slavery' as it is affecting developing countries.

How Technology Has Revolutionized Diplomacy

In addition, this paper will try to highlight and discuss the factors responsible for this concept of digital slavery. This paper attempts to make developing countries aware of and proactively anticipate the trends, consequences and implications as well as devise appropriate response. This paper will, finally, try to assess the benefits of globalization while minimizing the destabilizations, dislocation, disparities, distortion, disruptions and even the concept of digital slavery associated with the current global trends.

ICTs and Globalization Information Communication Technology is basically an electronic based system of information transmission, reception, processing and retrieval, which has drastically changed the way we think, the way we live and the environment in which we live. It must be realized that globalization is not limited to the financial markets, but encompasses the whole range the impact of ict in contemporary diplomacy social, political, economic and cultural phenomena.

Information and communication technology revolution is the central and driving force for globalization and the dynamic change in all aspects of human existence is the key by-product of the present globalization period of ICT revolution.

The world telecommunication system, the convergence of computer technology and telecommunications technology into the Information Technology, with all its components and activities, is distinctive in its extension and complexity- and is also undergoing a rapid and fundamental change.

The results of this are that National boundaries between the impact of ict in contemporary diplomacy and continents become indistinct and the capacity to transfer and process information increases at an exceptional rate. The global information communication has been called "the world's largest machine," and it is very complex and difficult to visualize and understand in its different hardware and software subsystems. It offers the best chance yet for developing countries to take their rightful place in the global economy And so our mission must be to ensure access as widely as possible.

If we do not, the gulf between the haves and the have-nots will be the gulf between the technology-rich and the technology-poor". ICTs are increasingly playing an important role in organizations and in society's ability to produce, access, adapt and apply information.

These views seem to be shared globally, irrespective of geographical location and difference in income level and wealth of the nation.

  • In the contemporary era, there has been a proliferation of western morality, concepts, culture, political ideologies and beliefs etc;
  • Most observers have dismissed the most radical views, i;
  • Media also informs people about the various development programs undertaken by the government.

ICT may not be the only cause of changes we are witnessing in today's business environment, but the rapid developments in ICT have given impetus to the current wave of globalization. While trans-national corporations are reaping huge profits from the flexibility and opportunities offered by globalization, the level of poverty in the world is growing.

Africa in particular is hit by the growth of poverty and economic crisis. The use and production of ICT plays an important role in the ability of nations to participate in global economic activities. Apart from facilitating the acquisition and absorption of knowledge, ICT could offer developing countries unprecedented opportunities to change educational systems, improve policy formulation and execution, and widen the range of opportunities for business and for the poor.

It could also support the process of learning, knowledge networking, knowledge codification, teleworking, and science systems. ICT could be used to access global knowledge and communication with other people. However, over major parts of developing countries ICT is available only on a very limited scale, and this raises doubts about developing countries' ability to participate in the current ICT-induced global knowledge economy.

There has also been concern that this unequal distribution of ICT may in fact further contribute to the marginalization of poor countries in relation to developed countries, and to disruptions of the social fabric.

Hence, one can conclude that the concept of 'digital slavery' is inevitable for developing countries as far as ICT is concerned. The wide gap in the availability and use of ICT across the world, and the influences ICT exerts on globalization, raise questions about whether globalization entails homogeneity for organizations and societies in developing countries.

Information and Communication Technology development is a global revolution. It has become a subject of great significance and concern to all mankind. Relevant studies have shown that the greatest impact of the ICT revolution will revolve around the 'Digital Divide' equation.

The most important aspect of the ICT challenge is the need to plan, design and implement a National Information Infrastructure NII the impact of ict in contemporary diplomacy the engine of economic growth and development. Digital Slavery--Reality or Myth? Slavery is a social institution which is defined by law and custom as the most absolute involuntary form of human servitude. It is a condition in which one human being was owned by another.

A slave was considered by law as property, or chattel, and deprived of most of the rights ordinarily held by free persons. But it must be realized that there is no consensus on what a slave was or on how the institution of slavery should be defined.

But it must be known that the slave usually had few rights and always fewer than his owner. The product of a slave's labour could be claimed by someone else, who also frequently had the right to control his physical production. Another characteristic of slavery is the fact that the slave was deprived of personal liberty and the right to move about geographically as he desired. There were likely to be limits on his capacity to make choices with regards to his occupation.

At this juncture, one can rightly ask how the above characteristics of slavery fit in to this concept of 'digital slavery', which is the theme of this paper. Despite the undoubted benefits offered by ICTs, significant barriers to their effective use exist in both developed and developing countries. These barriers must be addressed to allow realization of ICTs' full potential. Some barriers may be endemic e.

The developing countries are faced with the problems of poor telecoms the impact of ict in contemporary diplomacy, poor computer and general literacy, lack of awareness of the Internet and regulatory inadequacy that also hinder other applications of the Internet there. Technological gaps and uneven diffusion in technology are not new. There are significant disparities in access to and use of ICTs across countries. Developing countries risk being left further behind in terms of income, equality, development, voice and presence on an increasingly digitalized world stage.

Yet, despite the vast literature on this subject and the ongoing discussion, globalization remains an ill-defined concept.

  • The revival of a more radical Islam at odds with moderate tendencies within and the economic crisis that is hitting those societies overshadows the hopes for transition to democracy;
  • A small number of companies are responsible for a large chunk of media products;
  • The wide gap in availability and use of ICTs across the world and the influences ICTs exert on globalization at the expense of developing countries were carefully examined and suggestions and necessary policies were offered for developing countries to leap-frog the industrialization stage and transform their economies into high value-added information economies that can compete with the advanced countries on the global market;
  • We cannot forget the fact that the geographic working groups are headed by the EEAS and the labour of diplomats becomes more complex having to defend their national interests and participating in formulating european policies;
  • Has diplomacy changed completely or is it essentially the same?
  • Aguiyi Ironsi Street, Maitama, Abuja.

Some view it as the international system that has succeeded the end of the Cold War, while others prefer to continue using the term "internationalization" to describe the current changes in the international economy.

Though there is some agreement among scholars and experts that globalization is producing greater interconnections and interdependence, there seems to be little consensus on the degree of integration it engenders and on its pervasiveness. Different views have emerged on this issue. As way of simplification, four different positions can be accounted for: The second--the 'strong globalization view'--contends that homogeneity remains highly unlikely within the global system, but that a range of qualitative and quantitative changes have combined to introduce a new condition, or set of processes, into world affairs that warrant the novel term 'globalization'.

The third position--the 'weak' globalization perspective--maintains that many of the undoubtedly important developments of recent decades signal a significant increase of internationalization within the international political economy that has complex but variable consequences for politics, economics and society, but that has not ushered in a distinctively new era in human affairs. Most observers have dismissed the most radical views, i.

The crucial debate is thus between the "strong" and "weak" globalization positions. In the midst of the worldwide economic boom, reports documenting modern-day slavery come from every corner of the globe. As indicated in the earlier part of this the impact of ict in contemporary diplomacy, globalization always produces winners and losers.

In all cases, those who win are those who trade in goods and services characterized by increasing returns. The pace and structure of globalization is usually dictated by the winners.

  1. Ambassador in Paris, it would take about six months for his diplomatic dispatches to reach his government in Philadelphia. We should analyze the changes that are transforming the way diplomats operate today.
  2. Many consider the Tunisian Revolution as the Twitter Revolution. They also show similar patterns in level of wealth, with a stable governance structure.
  3. The increasing role of international organizations and the rise of multilateral diplomacy is another factor that is changing the physiognomy of diplomacy. A diplomatic service that is stuck in the mind-frame of broadcasting and fails to narrow-cast to the wide spectrum of passions, priorities and identities which make up the contemporary polity, will be quick to lose its value.
  4. The World Turned Upside Down?. The growth of media and communications technology has led to the phenomena called the cultural imperialism in which the culture and value systems of the industrialized and economically influential countries standardize civilizations throughout the world.

In the late 19th century and pre-first World War years, it was driven by colonialism and gunboat diplomacy. The current one is driven by more subtle ideology propagated by the international financial institutions and the world trade organization through the influence of ICTs.