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The problem of meat contamination and food related illness in the united states

Unsafe food containing harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites or chemical substances, causes more than 200 diseases — ranging from diarrhoea to cancers. An estimated 600 million — almost 1 in 10 people in the world — fall ill after eating contaminated food and 420 000 die every year, resulting in the loss of 33 million healthy life years DALYs.

Diarrhoeal diseases are the most common illnesses resulting from the consumption of contaminated food, causing 550 million people to fall ill and 230 000 deaths every year. Food safety, nutrition and food security are inextricably linked. Unsafe food creates a vicious cycle of disease and malnutrition, particularly affecting infants, young children, elderly and the sick.

Foodborne diseases impede socioeconomic development by straining health care systems, and harming national economies, tourism and trade. Food supply chains now cross multiple national borders. Good collaboration between governments, producers and consumers helps ensure food safety. Foodborne pathogens can cause severe diarrhoea or debilitating infections including meningitis.

  1. This dietary habit has some negative aspects on the consumers' health. They found that when the contaminated carcasses were being processed, the main risk factors regarding the cross contamination were inapt cleaning and disinfection, manipulation of contaminated materials as such and re contaminated surfaces.
  2. It could be concluded that handling of these foods by such workers would be a risk in transmitting the pathogenic microorganisms to the foods and are apparent that would be necessary for these workers to take care of personal hygiene.
  3. Cross contamination and food handling Cross-contamination during food preparation has been identified as an important factor associated with the food-borne illness Wanyenya et al. Most of these problems could be controlled with the efforts on the part of the food handlers, whether in a processing plant, a restaurant, and others.
  4. Listeria is found in unpasteurised dairy products and various ready-to-eat foods and can grow at refrigeration temperatures. Heavy metalssuch as lead, cadmium and mercury cause neurological and kidney damage.

Chemical contamination can lead to acute poisoning or long-term diseases, such as cancer. Foodborne diseases may lead to long-lasting disability and death. Examples of unsafe food include uncooked foods of animal origin, fruits and vegetables contaminated with faeces, and raw shellfish containing marine biotoxins. Symptoms are fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhoea.

Examples of foods involved in outbreaks of salmonellosis are eggs, poultry and other products of animal origin. Foodborne cases with Campylobacter are mainly caused by raw milk, raw or undercooked poultry and drinking water. Listeria infection leads to unplanned abortions in pregnant women or death of newborn babies. Listeria is found in unpasteurised dairy products and various ready-to-eat foods and can grow at refrigeration temperatures.

Vibrio cholerae infects people through contaminated water or food. Symptoms include abdominal pain, vomiting and profuse watery diarrhoea, which may lead to severe dehydration and possibly death.

Food safety

Rice, vegetables, millet gruel and various types of seafood have been implicated in cholera outbreaks. Antimicrobials, such as antibiotics, are essential to treat infections caused by bacteria. However, their overuse and misuse in veterinary and human medicine has been linked to the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria, rendering the treatment of infectious diseases ineffective in animals and humans.

Antimicrobial resistance is one of the main threats to modern medicine. Norovirus infections are characterized by nausea, explosive vomiting, watery diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Hepatitis A virus can cause long-lasting liver disease and spreads typically through raw or undercooked seafood or contaminated raw produce.

Infected food handlers are often the source of food contamination. Some parasites, such as fish-borne trematodes, are only transmitted through food.

Others, for example tapeworms like Echinococcus spp, or Taenia solium, may infect people through food or direct contact with animals. Prions, infectious agents composed of protein, are unique in that they are associated with specific forms of neurodegenerative disease.

Consuming bovine products containing specified risk material, e. Of most concern for health are naturally occurring toxins and environmental pollutants. Naturally occurring toxins include mycotoxins, marine biotoxins, cyanogenic glycosides and toxins occurring in poisonous mushrooms. Staple foods like corn or cereals can contain high levels of mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin and ochratoxin, produced by mould on grain. A long-term exposure can affect the immune system and normal development, or cause cancer.

Persistent organic pollutants POPs are compounds that accumulate in the environment and human body. Known examples are dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls PCBswhich are unwanted by-products of industrial processes and waste incineration. They are found worldwide in the environment and accumulate in animal food chains.

Food Safety

Dioxins are highly toxic and can cause reproductive and developmental problems, damage the immune system, interfere with hormones and cause cancer. Heavy metalssuch as lead, cadmium and mercury cause neurological and kidney damage. Contamination by heavy metal in food occurs mainly through pollution of air, water and soil.

The burden of foodborne diseases The burden of foodborne diseases to public health and welfare and to economy has often been underestimated due to underreporting and difficulty to establish causal relationships between food contamination and resulting illness or death. The 2015 WHO report on the estimates of the global burden of foodborne diseases presented the first-ever estimates of disease burden caused by 31 foodborne agents bacteria, viruses, parasites, toxins and chemicals at global and regional level.

WHO estimates of the global burden of foodborne diseases The evolving world and food safety Safe food supplies support national economies, trade and tourism, contribute to food and nutrition security, and underpin sustainable development.

  • Shigella was isolated from three "macaroni" samples;
  • Contamination by heavy metal in food occurs mainly through pollution of air, water and soil;
  • Listeria is found in unpasteurised dairy products and various ready-to-eat foods and can grow at refrigeration temperatures;
  • Contamination by heavy metal in food occurs mainly through pollution of air, water and soil;
  • In the developing countries, like Brazil, a large proportion of the ready-to-eat food is sold on the streets.

Urbanization and changes in consumer habits, including travel, have increased the number of people buying and eating food prepared in public places. Globalization has triggered growing consumer demand for a wider variety of foods, resulting in an increasingly complex and longer global food chain. Climate change is also predicted to impact food safety, where temperature changes modify food safety risks associated with food production, storage and distribution.

These challenges put greater responsibility on food producers and handlers to ensure food safety. Local incidents can quickly evolve into international emergencies due to the speed and range of product distribution. Serious foodborne disease outbreaks have occurred on every continent in the past decade, often amplified by globalized trade. Infants, young children, pregnant women, the elderly and those with an underlying illness are particularly vulnerable. Unsafe food creates a vicious cycle of diarrhoea and malnutrition, threatening the nutritional status of the most vulnerable.

The Second International Conference on Nutrition ICN2held in Rome in November 2014, reiterated the importance of food safety in achieving better human nutrition through healthy nutritious diets. Improving food safety is thus a key in achieving Sustainable Development Goals. Governments should make food safety a public health priority, as they play a pivotal role in developing policies and regulatory frameworks, establishing and implementing effective food safety systems that ensure that food producers and suppliers along the whole food chain operate responsibly and supply safe food to consumers.

Food can become contaminated at any point of production and distribution, and the primary responsibility lies with food producers. Yet a large proportion of foodborne disease incidents are caused by foods improperly prepared or mishandled at home, in food service establishments or markets.

Not all food handlers and consumers understand the roles they must play, such as adopting basic hygienic practices when buying, selling and preparing food to protect their health and that of the wider community.

Everyone can contribute to making food safe.

  • The species includes the intestinal diarrheagenic E;
  • It could be concluded that handling of these foods by such workers would be a risk in transmitting the pathogenic microorganisms to the foods and are apparent that would be necessary for these workers to take care of personal hygiene;
  • From the point of view of their effect on the burden of the disease, the main health benefit of the water supply, sanitation, and hygiene is a reduction in the diarrheal disease, although the effects on other diseases are substantial;
  • On the other hand, due to large-scale, high-speed food processing, alteration of the traditional processing methods resulting in less control of the microorganisms, proliferation of heat-and-eat convenience foods and nationwide distribution with increased potential for mishandling, there is concern that the outbreaks of the food borne illness can occur worldwide;
  • Heterotrophic plate count bacteria represent those microorganisms isolated by a particular method that can be enumerated by counting the bacterial colonies produced on an agar-based medium under the defined incubation temperature and time Allen et al;
  • Hofer and Reis 1994 reported the presence of Salmonella serovars involved in 25 food poisoning episodes which occurred in the Southeast and South of Brazil from 1982 to 1991.

Here are some examples of effective actions: Food handlers and consumers can: WHO response WHO aims to facilitate global prevention, detection and response to public health threats associated with unsafe food. Ensuring consumer trust in their authorities, and confidence in the safe food supply, is an outcome that WHO works to achieve.