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Uk and china comparing age and family care

Concern peaks in East Asia, where nearly nine-in-ten Japanese, eight-in-ten South Koreans and seven-in-ten Chinese describe aging as a major problem for their country.

Comparing Health Systems in Four Countries: Lessons for the United States

Europeans also display a relatively high level of concern with aging, with more than half of the public in Germany and Spain saying that it is a major problem. Americans are among the least concerned, with only one-in-four expressing this opinion. These attitudes track the pattern of aging itself around the world. In Japan and South Korea, the majorities of the populations are projected to be older than 50 by China is one of most rapidly aging countries in the world.

Germany and Spain, along with their European neighbors, are already among the countries with the oldest populations today, and their populations will only get older in the future. Public concern with the growing number of older people is lower outside of East Asia and Europe.

In most of these countries, such as Indonesia and Egypt, the proportion of older people in the population is relatively moderate and is expected to remain so in the future. Pakistan, Nigeria and other countries potentially stand to benefit from future demographic trends. These are countries uk and china comparing age and family care currently have large shares of children in their populations, and these children will age into the prime of their work lives in the future.

Confidence is lowest in Japan, Italy and Russia, countries that are aging and where economic growth has been anemic in recent years. In these three countries, less than one-third of people are confident about their old-age standard of living. Meanwhile, there is considerable optimism about the old-age standard of living among the public in countries whose populations are projected to be relatively young in the future or that have done well economically in recent years, such as in Nigeria, Kenya, South Africa and China.

Families and children

When asked who should bear the greatest responsibility for the economic well-being of the elderly—their families, the government or the elderly themselves—the government tops the list in 13 of the 21 countries that were surveyed. However, many who name the government are less confident in their own standard of living in old age compared with those who name themselves or their families.

Rarely do people see retirement expenses as mainly a personal obligation. In only four countries—South Korea, the U. Americans are less likely than most of the global public to view the growing number of older people as a major problem. They are more confident than Europeans that they will have an adequate standard of living in their old age. This is not because the U. American baby boomers are aging, and one-in-five U.

Inthe global median age 29 was eight years lower than the U. Also, driven by immigration, the U.

Attitudes about Aging: A Global Perspective

For these reasons, perhaps, the American public is more sanguine than most about aging. The aging of populations does raise concerns at many levels for governments around the world.

There is concern over the possibility that a shrinking proportion of working-age people ages 15 to 64 in the population may lead to an economic slowdown. The smaller working-age populations must also support growing numbers of older dependents, possibly creating financial stress for social insurance systems and dimming the economic outlook for the elderly.

Graying populations will also fuel demands for changes in public investments, such as the reallocation of resources from the needs of children to the needs of seniors. At the more personal level, longer life spans may strain household finances, cause people to extend their working lives or rearrange family structures. This study reports on the findings from a Pew Research Center survey of publics in 21 countries. The report also examines trends in the aging of the global population, the U.

The result will be a much older world, a future in which roughly one-in-six people is expected to be 65 and older bydouble the proportion today.

Health Care Systems - Four Basic Models

The population of children, meanwhile, will be at a virtual standstill due to long-term declines in birth rates around the world. And, more countries will find that they have more adults ages 65 and older than they have children younger than Japan, China, South Korea and many countries in Europe are expected to have greater numbers of people dependent on shrinking workforces, a potentially significant demographic challenge for economic growth.

However, aging elsewhere, such as India and several African countries, mostly means the aging of children into the workforce.

  • A workable coalition probably presupposes avoiding fierce redistributive battles over how and where to squeeze and redirect wasteful spending within the status quo, dismissal of employer mandates and the battles with business they trigger , the political courage to discuss tax increases that probably mingle social insurance payments with general revenues, and, not least important, willingness among ardent advocates of diverse financing strategies to rally behind whatever seems to stand some chance of passing;
  • China is a vast and extraordinary country extending thousands of miles from the deserts and plateau in the west to the ocean on the east;
  • Health care is not enough; their images of solidarity, community, and equity insist that how care is obtained, not merely that it be somehow obtainable, matters greatly.

That is a potentially favorable demographic trend for economic growth. Thus, the coming changes in world demography conceivably could alter the distribution of global economic power over the coming decades. For the United States, population trends may lead to greater opportunities in the global economy of the future. Thus, to the extent that demography is destiny, the U. Aging in Major Regions of the World In the future, aging and slower rates of growth are expected to characterize the populations of all major regions in the world.

Ranked by median age, Europe is currently the oldest region in the world and should retain that distinction in However, Latin America and Asia are projected to age the most rapidly through Africa will continue to have the youngest population in the world. Aging in the U. Countries whose populations should grow at rates slower than in the U. Some countries—Russia, Germany, Italy and Japan—are projected to experience reductions in their populations.

  • The 4 articles in this issue of the Journal that explore universal-coverage health care systems in 1 Canada, 2 France, 3 Germany, and 4 Great Britain United Kingdom are a sophisticated package of generalization, variation, and implication that defies easy synthesis and summation;
  • Scan for updated forecast;
  • The week in energy:

Nations expected to experience relatively rapid population growth are located mostly in Africa. Kenya is expected to more than double its population from to Pakistan, Egypt and Israel are expected to grow at much faster rates than the U.

The populations of Mexico, India, Indonesia and Iran should increase at rates that are slightly higher than in the U. Regardless of their initial size or the rate of growth in their population, the countries covered by this study are all expected to turn grayer between now and The median age in the U. That will be less of an increase than in the rest of the world as the global median age is projected to increase from 29 in to 36 in The median age and the share of the population ages 65 and older also is projected to increase in other countries, sharply in China, South Korea, Mexico and Brazil, among others.

This means that future demographic conditions may not support the same rates of economic growth experienced in those countries in the past.

A handful of countries, even as their populations age, are poised to experience a potential demographic boost to their economies. The total dependency ratios in Egypt, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, Kenya and South Africa should decrease in the future, a consequence of their currently large youth populations aging into the workforce. This demographic transition is potentially a boon for economic growth.

But, because these countries will also experience rising proportions of seniors in their populations, they will not be entirely immune to the social and economic challenges posed by an aging citizenry.

  • That is a potentially favorable demographic trend for economic growth;
  • Having long allowed physicians and hospitals to practice medicine largely as they pleased—a norm crucial to the quid pro quo in which providers accepted regulation of their payments—these countries now seek efficiencies in production that supposedly accompany organizational innovation;
  • The UN reports four variants for population growth;
  • There are four basic systems;
  • For all the local variations, health care systems tend to follow general patterns.

Pension and Health Care Expenditures With aging, it is not surprising that public expenditures on pensions and health care are generally projected to increase as a share of gross domestic product GDP. Increases in pension expenditures are principally driven by aging. In response, many countries have implemented reforms, such as a rise in the retirement age, designed to decelerate the rate of increase.

Pension expenditures in the U. Larger concerns revolve around public health care expenditures, which are rising faster than pension expenditures in most countries. The reason is that health care expenditures are pushed up not just by aging but also by cost inflation. Similarly, large increases are expected in Japan and several countries in Europe, if current rates of cost inflation persist.

The oldest members of this cohort started to turn 65 in The UN reports four variants for population growth: That is because they depend not only on population projections but also on macroeconomic projections for GDP, assumptions about the labor force, policy parameters relating to eligibility ages and replacement rates, inflation in the cost of health care services, consumption of health care services and other factors.